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George C. Cooper Bequest 








For the Arts of Decoration 



FiTz Roy Carrington 




''^ In this matter I will, with the help of God, set 
forth the little which I have learnt, thotigh it will seem 
but a poor thing to many. But this does not trouble me, 
for I know well that it is easier to find fault with a thing 
than to make something better " 

Albert DCrer. 

In this Catalogue the aim has been to compile a handbook 
that will be of practical utility to students of the works of the 
great line-engravers and etchers ; and, though connoisseurs may- 
note the omission of some interesting facts, both in the biograph- 
ical notes and in the descriptions of the various ** states " of prints, 
the general student will, I hope, find the notes and the descriptions 
sufficiently detailed for his needs. 

I must acknowledge my indebtedness, in many ways, to the 
Catalogue of the Gray Collection of Engravings, by Dr. Louis 
Thies, and to " Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers." In 
general, the titles of catalogues or monographs dealing with any 
special artist or his work will be found mentioned under the name 
of such artist. 

The prints forming the present collection are not numbered, 
in any way, as it is to be hoped that new prints may be added, 
from time to time. 

New York has, hitherto, been far behind the larger European 
cities, inasmuch as here there has been no good public collection 
of engravings and etchings available to the student. 

Is it not time that this condition of affairs should be bettered ? 
For the price of a single masterpiece in painting, there could be 
purchased a sufficient number of fine prints, by the great masters, 
to form, together with the prints herein catalogued, a collection 
which might, justly, be a source of pride to all citizens of New 
York, and which would, certainly, be of real service to all students 
of the Fine Arts. 

FiTZ Roy Carrington. 

George Campbell Cooper was born August i6, 1840, in the 
city of New York, where he died January 29, 1895. He was 
the son of William Cooper, the brother and associate in busi- 
ness of Peter Cooper, the founder of the Cooper Union. He 
graduated from the College of the City of New York, was 
admitted to the practice of law, and engaged in the business of 
his family, which he diligently pursued until he was disabled 
by ill health. At this period of his life he commenced to form 
the interesting and valuable collection of engravings included in 
this catalogue. He presented the collection to the Cooper Union 
in the hope that it might be an aid to the cultivation of art, 
in which he felt very deep interest. It is proper to add that 
his surviving brother, Mr, Charles W, Cooper, and his sister, Miss 
Julia Cooper, have contributed one hundred thousand dollars to 
the Endowment Fund of the Cooper Union in memory of his 
gentle and generous character. 

Index to Names of Artists^ Chronologically Arranged* 


Mantegna, Andrea 1431-1506 13 

Schongauer, Martin 1445-1499 14 

Durer, Albert 1471-1528 15 

Burgmair, Hans 1473-1559 ? 29 

Raimondi, Marc Antonio 1485-1530 ? 29 

De'Musi, Agostino (Veneziano) 1490-1540 ? 34 

Lucas van Leyden 1494-1533 34 

Marco Dente da Ravenna 1496-1527 ? 37 

Bonasone, Giulio 1500-1580 ? 37 

Beham, Hans Sebald 1500-1550 38 

Beham, Barthel 1502-1540 39 

Aldegrever, Heinrich 1502-1560 40 

Cort, Cornelis 1536-1578 41 

Wierix, Jan ^549 41 

Sadeler, Johan 1550-1600 42 

Wierix, Hieronymus 1551-1619 42 

Alberti, Cherubino 1552-1615 43 

Wierix, Anthonie » 1555 43 

Caracci, Agostino 1557-1601 43 

Ghisi, Diana 1557-1590 ? 45 

Goltzius, Hendrik 1558-1615 46 

Caracci, Annibale 1560-1609 47 

Muller, Jan 1570 47 

Matham, Jacob 1571-1631 48 

Galle, Cornelis 1576-1656 48 

Vorsterman, Lucas 1578-1660 49 

Swanenburch, Willem van 1580-1612 49 

Goudt, Hendrik van 1585-1630 50 

De Passe, Crispin 1585-1660 ? 50 

Bolswert, Schelte a 1586-1659 51 

Lasne, Michel 1596-1667 51 

Van Dyck, Antoni. 1599-1641 52 

Claude Gellee de Lorraine 1600-1682 56 

Mellan, Claude 

De Jode, Pieter (The Younger) 

Hollar, Wenceslaus 

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn 

Delia Bella, Stefano 

Suyderhoef, Jonas 

Testa, Pietro 

Waterloo, Antoni 

Swanevelt, Herman van 

Visscher, Cornells -j 

Berghem, Nicholas 

Nanteuil, Robert 

Dujardin, Karel 

Ruysdael, Jacob 

Visscher, Jan 

Masson, Antoine 

Edelinck, Gerard 

Drevet, Pierre 

Picart, Bernard 

Chereau, Francois 

Canaletto, Antonio 

Drevet, Pierre Imbert 

Jackson, John Baptist 

Wagner, Joseph 

Schmidt, Georg Friedrich 

Smith of Chichester 

Wille, Johann Georg 

Balechou, Jean Joseph 

Bartolozzi, Francesco 

Weirotter, Franz Edmund 

Zucchi, Guiseppe 

Torond, F 

Woollett, William 

Vitalba, Giovanni 

Noble, George 

Birchall, T 

Kauffman, Angelica 

Delaltre, Jean Marie 

Sharp, William 

Marcuard, Robert Samuel 

Dighton, Robert 

Stubbs, George Townley 































1620 ?- 
1629 ?- 















17 12- 









1740-1791 ? 109 



I 745-1 840 









Bartsch, Adam 1757-1821 114 

Tomkins, Peltro William 1760-1840 114 

Fontana, Pietro r763-i837 115 

Schiavonetti, Louis 1765-1810 115 

Ward, William 1766-1826 116 

Audouin, Pierre 1768-1822 116 

Frey, Jan Pieter van 1770-1834 117 

Wattier, Emile 1800-1868 117 

Pannier, Jacques Etienne 1802-1869 117 

Index to Names of Artists, Alphabetically Arranged. 


Agostino, Veneziano 34 

Albert!, Cherubino 43 

Aldegrever, Heinrich 40 

Audouin, Pierre 116 

Balechou, Jean Joseph 100 

Bartolozzi, Francesco loi 

Bartsch, Adam 114 

Beham, Barthel 39 

Beham, Hans Sebald 38 

Berghem, Nicholas 86 

Birchall, T 109 

Bolswert, Schelte a 51 

Bonasone, Giulio 37 

Burgmair, Hans 29 

Canaletto, Antonio 93 

Caracci, Agostino 43 

Caracci, Annibale 47 

Chereau, Frangois 93 

Claude Gellee de Lorraine 56 

Cort, Cornells 41 

De Jode, Pieter (The Younger) 60 

De'Musi, Agostino (Veneziano) 34 

De Passe, Crispin 50 

Del^tre, Jean Marie iii 

Delia Bella, Stef ano 82 

Dente, Marco, da Ravenna 37 

Dighton, Robert 113 

Drevet, Pierre 92 

Drevet, Pierre Imbert 94 

Dujardin, Karel 88 

Diirer, Albert 15 

Dyck, Antoni van 52 

Edelinck, Gerard 90 

Fontana, Pietro 115 



Frey, Jan Pieter van ,. 117 

Galle, Cornells 48 

Gellee, Claude, de Lorraine 56 

Ghisi, Diana 45 

Goltzius, Hendrik 46 

Goudt, Hendrik van 50 

Hollar, Wenceslaus 61 

Jackson, John Baptist 96 

Jode, Pieter de (The Younger) 60 

Kauffman, Angelica no 

Lasne, Michel 51 

Lucas van Leyden 34 

Mantegna, Andrea 13 

Marco Dente da Ravenna 37 

Marc Antonio Raimondi 29 

Marcuard, Robert Samuel ,. . . 113 

Masson, Antoine 89 

Matham, Jacob . . . , 48 

Mellan, Claude , 59 

Muller, Jan 47 

Nanteuil, Robert 87 

Noble, George 109 

Pannier, Jacques Etienne 117 

Passe, Crispin De 50 

Picart, Bernard 93 

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn 62 

Raimondi, Marc Antonio 29 

Ruysdael, Jacob 88 

Sadeler, Johan 42 

Schiavonetti, Louis 115 

Schmidt, Georg Friedrich 97 

Schongauer, Martin 14 

Sharp, William in 

Smith of Chichester 98 

Stubbs, 'George To wnley 114 

Suyderhoef, Jonas 82 

Swanenburch, Willem van 49 

Swanevelt, Herman van 84 

Testa, Pietro 83 

Tomkins, Peltro William 114 

Torond, F 107 

Van Dyck, Antoni 52 

Veneziano, Agostino De'Musi 34 



Visscher, Cornells 85 

Vlsscher, Jan 89 

Vltalba, Giovanni 109 

Vorsterman, Lucas 49 

Wagner, Joseph 96 

Ward, William 116 

Waterloo, Antonl 83 

Wattler, Emlle 117 

Welrotter, Franz Edmund 106 

Wierlx, Anthonle 43 

Wierlx, Hleronymus 42 

Wierlx, Jan , 41 

Wllle, Johann Georg 99 

Woollett, William 107 

Zucchl, Gulseppe 107 

Index to Names of Etchers of the Nineteenth Century^ 
Alphabetically Arranged. 


Appian, Adolphe 121 

Bracquemond, Felix 122 

Buhot, Felix 123 

Detaille, Edouard 124 

Gilli, Maso 124 

Gravesande, Charles Storm van's 125 

Haden, Francis Seymour 127 

Hardy, Heywood 130 

Jacque, Charles 130 

Jacquemart, Jules 131 

Jongkind, Johann Barthold 133 

Lalanne, Maxima 134 

Law, David 135 

Le Rat, Paul 135 

Marvy, Louis 136 

Menpes, Mortimer L 136 

Meryon, Charles 136 

Montbard, George 139 

Monzies, Louis 139 

Robinson, C. F 140 

Veyrassat, Jacques Jules 140 

Note on G>IIcctors* Stamps and Marks. 

For centuries, it has been the custom of some eminent collectors 
to put a distinctive mark upon the backs of such prints as they 
considered worthy to form a part of their several collections. 

When the mark of some renowned collector is found on a print, 
it is always considered a certificate of high quality. In the older 
prints, the highest endorsement is the name of ** Pierre Mariette," 
written, with the date ranging from 1660 to 17 10. 

" Pierre Mariette was an eminent collector and dealer about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. He was accustomed, when- 
ever he happened to become possessed of an impression of more 
than ordinary beauty, to write his name at full length, and a date, 
on the print ; and although this is certainly a disfigurement, yet 
such is Pierre Mariette's reputation for judgment, that to be 
thus disfigured is no disparagement to a print, but the contrary." 
(J. Maberly, "The Print Collector," New York Edition, pp. 83-84.) 

The famous collection of Pierre Mariette was continued and 
enlarged by his son Jean, and grandson Pierre Jean Mariette, and 
was at the time of the death of the last named, in 1774, undoubtedly 
the most exquisite collection ever possessed by a private individual. 


MANTEGNA, ANDREA. [Italian School, 1431-1506.] 

Born at Padua in 143 1. 

Died at Mantua the 15th of September, 1506. 

His parents were humble folk, and consented to his adoption 
in 1441 by Francesco Squarcione, who taught him the rudiments 
of art and made him his heir. 

The talent of Mantegna showed itself at an early age, and by 
1456 his renown was such that liberal overtures were made to him 
by the Marquis Lodovico Gonzaga to induce him to remove to 
Mantua, which he accordingly did, as soon as the work he was then 
engaged upon was finished ; and having removed his family, settled 
in that city. In 1468 Mantegna was knighted by the Marquis 
Francesco Gonzaga and sent by him to Rome. 

In 1484 he was desired by Pope Innocent VIII. to decorate the 
Belvedere Chapel, and it was probably at this time that Mantegna 
first saw the engraved work of Baccio Baldini (who, in his turn, 
had learned the art from Finiguerra), and began, also, to engrave 
his own designs. 

Mantegna was one of the earliest, if not the first, engraver in 
Northern Italy, and contributed more than any of his contempo- 
raries to the perfection to which the art of engraving was carried 
later, by his superiority in design, for the beauty of which his 
works are justly famous. There are numerous copies, or counter- 
feits, of his engravings, but none approach the originals in beauty. 
His plates are usually executed in single strokes, without cross- 
hatchings, or crossed lines, and in a manner resembling pen 
drawings of that time. 


The Entombment. 

Bartsch, No. 2. 

Soldiers Bearing Trophies, 

Bartsch, No. 14. 


A Combat of Tritons. 

Bartsch, No. 17. 

A Bacchanal. 

Bartsch, No. 19. 

SCHONGAUER, MARTIN. [German School, 1445-1499.] 

Born about 1445 at Colmar. 

Died at his native city, February 2, 1499. 

His first master was his father, Caspar Schongauer, whose 
trade was that of a goldsmith. At an early age Martin visited 
Flanders, and studied there under Roger van der Weyden, the 
elder, whose influence can be seen in his earlier paintings, and did 
not return to Colmar until about 1465. His earliest plates date 
from about this time, when he probably became free of his craft. 
During his lifetime Martin Schongauer enjoyed a great reputation 
among his contemporaries, who called him " Hipsch Martin," i. <?., 
" Martin the Beautiful." 

That he was so called on account of the beauty of his work 
and not, as is commonly supposed, because of his family name, 
seems almost certain, Bartsch, Vol. VI., pp. 103-108, enters very 
fully into the consideration of this much vexed question. His 
strongest argument is based on the portrait of Martin Schongauer, 
painted on wood by his pupil, Jan Largkmair, and at the time of 
writing in the gallery of Paul de Praun at Nuremberg. 

At the top of this portrait is written : 


with a coat of arms : a crescent, gules, upon a field, argent. Upon 
the back of the picture is an inscription which may be translated 
as follows: 

"Master Martin Schongauer, painter, called 'Martin the 
Beautiful,' on account of his art, born at Colmar, but, on account 
of his parents, a citizen of Augsbourg. Of a noble family, etc. Died 
at Colmar in the year 1499, upon the second of February. God 
grant him grace. And I, Jan Largkmair, I was his pupil in the year 

At the end of Bartsch, Vol. VI., is a plate showing both the 

As an engraver, Schongauer may be considered as the father 
of the German School, and although his works exhibit a certain 


Gothic stiffness in the drapery and in the attitudes of the figures, 
and a peculiar perspective in the landscapes and buildings, this is 
more than atoned for by the sweetness of expression in the faces, 
and by the richness of imagination and invention displayed in 
many of his plates. 

ADAM BARTSCH, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. VI., pp. 103-184. 

J. D. PASSAVANT, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. I., pp. 209-210. 

The Adoration of the Kings, 

Bartsch, No. 6. 

DURER, ALBERT. [German School, 1471-1528.] 

Albert Diirer was born at Nuremberg on the 20th of May, 
147 1. His father, a very skillful goldsmith, instructed him in that 
art, in which the young man showed remarkable talent. He 
abandoned it at the age of sixteen and at his urgent request was 
sent, as a pupil, to Michel Wohlgemuth to study painting. In 
1490 he began a tour of Germany, visiting, in 1492, the town of 
Colmar, where he was kindly received by the brothers of Martin 
Schongauer, who had died six years previously. 

In 1494 he returned to Nuremberg and married, in the same 
year, Agnes Frey, the daughter of a famous mechanician of that 
city. In 1506 he visited Venice (some authorities say for the 
second time, claiming his first visit to have been made in 1493), 
and there met Marc Antonio Raimondi, whose earliest engravings 
date from this year and who, later, copied many of Durer's en- 
gravings, even to adding the monogram. 

In 1520 or 1521 Diirer, accompanied by his wife, made a journey 
to the Netherlands and did not return until July, 1524, to Nurem- 
berg, in which city he died on the 6th of April, 1528, aged 57 years. 

Many authorities state that his life was embittered and his 
death hastened by the bad temper and parsimony of his wife, who 
kept him continually working, not permitting him to enjoy the 
society of his friends or any relaxation. 

When we think of the number and fineness of Durer's works in 
engraving and painting — not to mention his drawings and writ- 
ings — we cannot help wondering at the industry of the man and 
the remarkable quality of his productions. In engraving he found 


the art in its infancy and carried the technical fineness of it to a 
perfection that has never been surpassed. 

For many years the woodcuts bearing his name were thought 
to be engraved by him, but it has been clearly shown that the 
designs alone are his, the mechanical labor of cutting the block 
being done by other hands. 

Bartsch credits him with the discovery of the artistic possibili- 
ties of etching, Diirer having etched upon iron plates, in 15 15, 15 16 
and 15 18, six subjects; but Passavant asserts that as early as 1496 
Wenceslas Olmutz had already used etching for the reproduction 
of prints upon paper, and that the art was employed for the 
ornamentation of various pieces of armor in the twelfth century, 
in Italy, France, and Germany. 




DtJRER'S," Vol. II. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. November 15, 1888, to January, 
15, 1889. 

PASSAVANT, J. D., " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. III., pp. 144-227. 



Note. — I am indebted to Mr. Koehler's most interesting catalogue for 
the larger portion of the notes upon the engravings by Diirer here catalogued, 
and thank him for the valuable assistance rendered to all print-lovers by his 


Adam and Eve. 

Bartsch, No. i. Heller, No. ii6. Retberg, No. 55. 

Dated 1504. 

Impression upon paper with the water-mark of the bull's head. 

It was this engraving which first brought Diirer before the 
world in the full consciousness of his power, as undisputedly the 
greatest master of the burin of his time. 

Mr. Lionel Cust writes : " The Ada?n and Eve ranks amongst the 
most important of Diirer's works. In it are seen the results of 
Diirer's studies into the proportions of the human body, and the 
triumph of his attempts to produce a chiaroscuro effect in copper- 
plate-engraving. Moreover, Diirer has left so many drawings for 
this composition, and also unfinished states of the engraving, that 
it is possible to trace its whole history. Starting from the studies 
of proportion, instigated byjacopo dei Barbari, Diirer is seen, first, 
entering into competition with one of Barbari's engravings, ''''Apollo 
and Diana" with a similar engraving of his own ; then taking the 
motive of Barbari's engraving in a drawing of his own (in the 
British Museum) but altering the figure of Apollo into a version 
of the Apollo Belvedere. After experimenting with this Apollo as 
an ^sculapius (drawing in the Beckerath collection in Berlin), he, 
by reversing the figure of Apollo, turned it into Adam, as in the 
engraving ; to this he added a drawing of the figure of Eve (both 
these last drawings are in the Albertina collection at Vienna), and 
then combined the two figures in the one composition (drawing in 
the Lanna collection at Prague) as in the engraving, though in 

The unfinished states of the engraving show how carefully 
DUrer elaborated the dark masses of the background in order to 
throw into relief the nude bodies, in the earliest state these figures 
being left in outline. Thus the real motive of this wonderful en- 
graving is to produce ideal figures of a man and a woman as 
exemplified by Adam and Eve before the fall. 

That Diirer was himself pleased with the result of his labors, 
at the time, seems certain from the detailed inscription on the 
tablet : albert durer noricus faciebat, followed by the mono- 
gram and the date. His price for it was, as for all his " full 
sheet " prints, eight for one florin, or four stivers for a single copy. 

The Sudarium Displayed by Two Angels. 

Bartsch, No. 25. Heller, No. 467. Retberg, No. 202. 

Dated 15 13. 

Frequently called the Sudarium of St. Veronica. 


The Prodigal Son. 

Bartsch, No. 28. Heller, No. 477. Retberg, No. 5. 
From the collections of P. Mariette (1666). 

W. Beckford (author of Vathek). 
De Bois. 
The *' Prodigal " is considered by some writers to be a por- 
trait of Diirer himself. 

The original drawing by Durer for this engraving is in the 
British Museum. Both drawing and engraving show the same 
peculiarities in the limbs of the Prodigal. The background has 
always been much admired, and Vasari says of it : " In this en- 
graving there are huts or cabins after the German manner, which 
are exceedingly beautiful." 

The Virgin With the Crowit of Stars. 

Bartsch, No. 31. Heller, No. 517. Retberg, No. 118. 

Dated 1508. 

An interesting feature of this print is the face of " the man in 
the moon" in the crescent, upon which the Virgin stands. Diirer 
omitted this detail in his later prints of similar subjects. 

The Virgin Nttrsing the Infant Jesus. 

Bartsch, No. 36. Heller, No. 576. Retberg, No. 232. 

Dated 1512. 

From the Gervaise collection. 

Thausing says of this plate that it is remarkable for the soft 
grey tone of the engraving : 

"All Dlirer's prints after 15 10 have, in the best impressions, a 
silvery grey tone, which is quite new in the history of engraving. 
This Diirer attained by first working on the plate with the needle, 
and then strengthening the engraving bit by bit with the burin 
until the required effect was produced. In this way he produced 
the most beautiful of his renderings of the Virgin and Child, in 
every one of which the motive of homely motherly love is as 
conspicuous and as touching as in the Madonna della Sedia, or the 
Madomia della Casa Tempi of Raphael. Chief among those may be 
reckoned The Virgin With the Pear, of 15 11, and The Virgin Seated 
by a Wall, of 15 14." (Lionel Cust, "The Engravings of Albrecht 
Durer," pp. 57-58.) 


TJie Virgin Crowned by an Angel. 

Bartsch, No. 37. Heller, No. 537. Retberg, No. 236. 

Dated 1520. 

From the collection of P. Mariette (1649). 

The Virgin Crowited by Two Angels. 

Bartsch, No. 39. Heller, No. 547. Retberg, No. 226. 
Dated 15 18. 

The original drawing for the drapery on the knees is in the 
Albertina, Vienna. 

The Virgin Seated by a Wall. 

Bartsch, No. 40. Heller, No. 610. Retberg, No. 205. 

Dated 15 14. 

From the collection of Pierre Mariette (1660). 

This print shows the results of Diirer's experiments in etching. 
The silvery quality so noticeable in his later prints can first be dis- 
cerned in this one. It results from the judicious use of the 
etched line, finished with the burin. 

The Virgin With the Pear. 

Bartsch, No. 41. Heller, No. 621. Retberg, No. 194. 
Dated 1511. 

This is considered by several authorities to be one of the most 
beautiful Madonnas engraved by Diirer. 

The Virgin With the Monkey. 

Bartsch, No. 42. Heller, No. 628. Retberg, No. 88. 

This is one of the most beautiful and dignified of Diirer's 
renderings of this subject, not only in the figures of the Virgin 
and Child, but also in the breadth and airiness of the landscape. 
Unfortunately, the enjoyment of the design is marred somewhat by 
the fact that the child is teazing a poor little bird, and holds in its 
left hand a sucking-bag, which is even more objectionable than the 
usual apple or pear. 

The monkey has given opportunity to the commentators to 
display their ingenuity. According to Retberg, it symbolizes the 
devil. Heller thinks it is intended for the child to play with. 

while von Eye conjectures that such animals were probably kept 
in the houses of persons of rank at the time. The opinion, ex- 
pressed by Passavant and others, that the design suggests Italian 
influences, seems fully justified. In its austerity, on the other hand, 
it is allied to the contemporaneous designs of the " Apocalypse," 
but there is more beauty in it. The loveliness of the background 
was soon recognized, and several Italian engravers availed them- 
selves of it. 

Five of the Disciples of Jesus Christ. 
Saint Philip. 

Bartsch, No. 46. Heller, No. 652. Retberg, No. 264. 
Dated 1526. 

Saint Bartholomew. 

Bartsch, No. 47. Heller, No. 659. Retberg, No. 251. 
Dated 1523. 

Saint Thomas. 

Bartsch, No. 48. Heller, No. 667. Retberg, No. 207. 
Dated 15 14. 

Saint Simon. 

Bartsch, No. 49. Heller, No. 678. Retberg, No. 252. 
Dated 1523. 

Saint Paul. 

Bartsch, No. 50. Heller, No. 686. Retberg, No. 206. 

Dated 15 14. 

This series was doubtless intended to comprise the twelve 
apostles, but though worked upon, at intervals, for twelve years, 
it was never completed. 

Saint Christopher With His Head Turning to 

the Left. 

Bartsch, No. 51. Heller, No. 708. Retberg, No. 245. 
Dated 1521. 

Saint George. 

Bartsch, No. 53. Heller, No. 737. Retberg, No. 121. 

From the collections of Prince Paar of Austria, and of 
Ambroise Firmin-Didot, Paris. 

St. George, according to the legend, was a prince of Cappa- 
docia, who died the death of a martyr under Diocletian. His most 
celebrated deed was the killing of the dragon which threatened to 
devour the Royal Princess, Aja. The legend is of oriental origin 
and was introduced into Europe by the Crusaders. It is stated that 
the Emperor Maximilian I. reorganized the order of St. George, 
which had fallen into decay, and possibly Dlirer's two engravings 
of the Saint were inspired by this action. 

Saint Sebastian Tied to a Column. 

Bartsch, No. 56. Heller, No. 783. Retberg, No. 17. 
From the Keller collection. 

Saint Eustace (or Saint Hubert). 

Bartsch, No. 57. Heller, No. 727. Retberg, No. 127. 

Eustace, or Placidus by his heathen name, was a valorous gen- 
eral under the Emperor Trajan, and a passionate hunter. While 
hunting one day, Christ crucified appeared to him between the 
antlers of a stag, and spoke to him, Avhereupon he and his whole 
family were converted. A similar story is related of St. Hubert, 
and, by a confusion of names, this plate is sometimes miscalled 
" St. Hubert." 

It is the largest of Diirer's engraved plates and is, at the same 
time, one of the finest in execution and one of the rarest. Emperor 
Rudolph II. caused the lines in the plate to be filled with gold. 

Saint Jerome in His Cell. 

Bartsch, No. 60. Heller, No. 756. Retberg, No. 208. 

Dated 15 14. 

St. Jerome, one of the most learned of the Fathers of the Latin 
Church, a prolific writer, and the translator of the Vulgate (born 331 
or 342 in Dalmatia of well-to-do parents ; converted to Rome about 
360 ; lived four years as an anchorite in the desert ; died about 420 
at a monastery, near Bethlehem, which he had founded with funds 
furnished by Paula, a wealthy lady of his following), was one of 
the favorite Saints of Diirer's and of later times, and therefore 

often taken as a subject by artists. The lion accompanies him, 
because, according to the legend, he drew a thorn from the paw of 
the animal, which ever afterwards was his companion. 

Of this print Mr. Lionel Cust writes : 

'' St. Jerome, the type of the mediaeval scholar, who, by his 
translation of the Bible into Latin, became one of the real Fathers 
of Christianity, sits at his writing desk in his library. The room 
is a regular German interior, such as that of Hans Sachs in Wag- 
ner's 'Die Meistersinger,' and the warm morning sun streams 
through the window, over the Saint and the floor, where the lion 
and a dog lie slumbering in its warmth. All is peace, happiness 
and contentment, and simplicity and comfort are blended in the 
fittings of the chamber." 

In "Le Peintre Graveur," by Adam Bartsch, Vol. VII., p. 76, 
we read : " The two animals, the skull and the furniture of the 
cell are engraved with rare delicacy, and at the same time in the 
most artistic manner. One cannot see, without admiring, the care 
with which Diirer has expressed in this beautiful print the effect 
of bright light shining through the glass of the window and illumi- 
nating the room." 

Saint Jerome in His Cell. 

Copy in reverse^ not described by Bartsch. 

Saint Jerome in Pena^tce. 

Bartsch, No. 61. Heller, No. 776. Retberg, No. 8. 


Bartsch, No. 74. Heller, No. 846. Retberg, No. 209. 

Dated 15 14. 

Diirer in his writings dwells so much upon the dominating in- 
fluence of the Four Temperaments in life, that there is good ground 
for believing that this engraving was one of a series and represents 
the Melancholic, as does the St. Jerome in His Study, the Phleg- 
matic, and the Knight, Death and the Devil, the Sanguine, Temper- 
ament. Diirer, however, makes no mention of any such meaning 
in connection with this print. 

This has always been considered one of the best, as it certainly 
is one of the most interesting and enigmatical of Diirer's engrav- 
ings. Of it Thausing writes : " The winged woman, who, supporting 


her cheek in her left hand, and with a laurel wreath on her loosely 
bound hair, is seated plunged in gloomy meditation, all the materials 
for human labor, for art and for science lying scattered around 
her — what could she be meant to represent but Human Reason, in 
despair at the limits imposed upon her power ?" 

Mr. Lionel Cust writes: "In the Melancolia there can be no 
doubt that the so-called ' magic square ' refers directly to the death 
of his mother. His mother died on May 17, 15 14. Now the figures 
on the square can be read as follows : The two figures in the op- 
posite corners to each other, 16 + 1 and 13 + 4, make 17, the day of 
the month; so do the figures in the centre, read crossways, 10 + 7 
and II + 6, and also the middle figures at the sides read across, 
5 + 12 and 8 + 9. The two middle figures in the top line, 3 + 2, 
give 5, the month in question; and the two middle figures in the 
bottom line give the year, 15 14. Above the square a bell tolls the 
fatal knell, and the sandglass timepiece hard-by records, no doubt, 
the hour at which the sad event happened." Pp. 63-64. 

The Dream. 

Bartsch, No. 76. Heller, No. 854. Retberg, No. 116. 

There is much diversity of opinion as to the meaning of this 
print, Vasari speaks of it as " representing a man sleeping in a 
bath room, while Venus is behind him inspiring his dreams with 
temptation, and Love, mounted on stilts, capers and sports around 
him, while the Devil blows into his ear with a pair of bellows." 
According to Thausing, it is "a pictorial satire on senile lust." 

The Great Forhme. 

Bartsch, No. 77. Heller, No. 839. Retberg, No. 124. 

" Fortune is represented by a nude winged woman. She is 
seen in profile and faces to the right. She carries in one hand a 
precious vase, and in the other a bridle, indicating the sway she 
exercises over mankind by the desire of riches, just as the wings, 
and the globe upon which she stands, show her inconsistency. 

The landscape which occupies the bottom of the print is, 
according to Sandrart, that of the village of Eytas, near Giulia, in 
Hungary, the birthplace of Albert Durer's father and the place 
from which the family derived its origin. 

Some persons assert that the head of Fortune is the portrait 
of Diirer's wife. Fine proofs of this print are very rare." 

(Bartsch, Vol. VIL, pp. 91-92.) 


This print is also sometimes called "Temperance" and ''Pan- 
dora." Diirer himself calls it "Nemesis" but for what reason is 
not rightly known. 


Bartsch, No. 79. Heller, No. 826. Retberg, No. 51. 

From the Burleigh James collection. 

It seems that Diirer wished to represent in this print God as 
He will appear in His glory on the last day to judge both the 
quick and the dead. 

The Little Coitrier. 

Bartsch, No. 80. Heller, No. 986. Retberg, No. 13. 

Considered by some authorities to be a portrait of Eppelein 
von Garlingen, a celebrated robber-knight of the fourteenth cen- 

The Peasant and His IVife. 

Bartsch, No. 83. Heller, No. 921. Retberg, No. 11. 

There is much diversity of opinion as to the real meaning of 
this print, which is considered by some writers to be a satire upon 
the conceit of the peasantry. Of it Bartsch says: "Anger is ex- 
pressed in the face of the peasant, and his raised right hand shows 
that he threatens the woman who walks meekly by his side and 
with her hands folded in front of her." Allihn, however, takes a 
different view entirely and says that the pair " are about to step up 
to the dance, and that the man, far from scolding, is, on the con- 
trary, trying to make himself agreeable." 

The Assembly of IVarriors. 

Bartsch, No. 88. Heller, No. 981. Retberg, No. 4. 

It has been thought by some writers that this print represents 
Diirer in the hands of brigands. Bartsch declares, however, that 
there is no real foundation for such an opinion. It is probably 
only a study of costumes. 

Dancing Peasants. 

Bartsch, No. 90. Heller, No. 912. Retberg, No. 210. 

Dated 15 14. 

Sometimes called " Le Branle" (a swinging or whirling dance). 

For individuality and for the happy expression of a transient 
mood in face as well as in pose, the " Dancing Peasants " is quite 
as much without rivals in its class as " The Knight, Death and 
the Devil," " Melancholy," and '' St. Jerome in His Cell " are with- 
out rivals in theirs. 

Like "The Peasant and His Wife" (Bartsch, No. 83) this plate 
is supposed to be a satire upon the conceit of the peasantry. The 
struggle of the oppressed peasants to better their miserable con- 
dition was a topic of interest at this time. As early as 1476 risings 
occurred in South Germany, and these finally culminated in the 
Peasants' War in 1525. As usual, the just demands of the op- 
pressed were met by scorn and derision, and it is likely enough 
that Diirer, like other artists, tried to make money out of this sad 
condition of things. If we regret this side of Diirer's activity, we 
may, however, temper our regret by the following considerations, 
advanced by Allihn (p. 88) : " In these scenes of peasant life Diirer 
also is in curious discord with himself. It is true he joins in the 
general derision of the peasants ; he engraves his plates for those 
who found pleasure in testing their superior wit at the expense of 
the peasants, and who would have been as contented, if not more 
so, with the most scurrilous caricature, but it was impossible for 
Diirer to demand such a production of his genius. He draws a 
character-picture of superior comic qualities, but not a libel — yea, 
even more than this, he executes his genre representation with the 
same loving care as his most beautiful Madonna. 

This applies especially to the Dancing Peasants." 

The Knight and the Lady. 

Bartsch, No. 94. Heller, No. 884. Retberg, No. 14. 

Some authorities detect portraits of DUrer and his wife in this 
print. It would seem, however, that it merely represents the 
eternal presence of death. Youth and Love being no defense. 

The Little Horse. 

Bartsch, No. 96. Heller, No. 1000. Retberg, No. 85. 

Dated 1505. 

The real meaning of this print is doubtful. Some authorities 
see in it merely the outcome of Diirer's study of the proportions of 
the horse, the mythological adjuncts being added to please the 
educated public, while others recognize in the armed figure, Per- 
seus or Mercury. 


The Coat of Anns With a Skull. 

Bartsch, No. loi. Heller, No. 1022. Retberg, No. 53. 

Dated 1503. 

A much discussed print which it would seem safe to connect, 
in a general way, with the idea of the '' Dance of Death," although 
the " Wild Man " is evidently not a personification of death, but 
a satyr, as his right leg, visible to the left, clearly shows. 

"This print is one of the most esteemed works of the artist." 
(Bartsch, Vol. VII., p. 109.) 

The Knight, Death and the Devil. 

Bartsch, No. 98. Heller, No. 1013. Retberg, No. 203. 

Dated 1513. 

The long illness and approaching death of Diirer's mother are 
thought to have saddened the artist and at the same time inspired 
him to engrave his three world-famous masterpieces, " The Knight, 
Death and the Devil," " St. Jerome in His Cell," and " Melancholy " — 
"which contain the philosophy of a lifetime and are more eloquent 
than a thousand volumes of printed knowledge." 

Diirer, in his Diary, calls this plate simply " Der Ritter," but 
the titles invented for, and meanings ascribed to the print, are very 

Old catalogues say that it represents a Nuremberg soldier, 
named Rinck or Rinneck, who lost his way and met Death and the 
Devil in the darkness of the night — a story which is contradicted 
by the lighting of the composition. 

Heller calls it "The Christian Knight with Death and the 
Devil," and states that it represents Franz von Sickingen, " who 
was especially and generally feared in Germany about 15 10-15 12, 
and whose character was depicted by his enemies at the time in 
the most terrible and damaging manner." 

Thausing says the Knight is grinning, to show how little he is 
affected by the apparitions around him, and is of the opinion that 
the plate was intended to form one of the series of the Four Tem- 
peraments, and that the S before the date stands for Sanguinicus. 

Portrait of Albert of Mayence. 

Bartsch, No. 102, Heller, No. 1024. Retberg, No. 234. 
Dated 15 19. 

Called also " The Little Cardinal " to distinguish it from "The 
Great Cardinal." (Bartsch, No. 103.) Albert or Albrecht, Margrave 


of Brandenburg, born 14S9 or 1490, died 1545, was the man who, 
after he had received the Pope's authority to sell indulgences 
within his diocese, on condition of making over to the papal treas- 
ury one-half of the profits, appointed the Dominican Tezel, and 
thus, indirectly, caused Luther to post his ninety-five theses. His 
titles are given in the inscription in the upper part of the plate : 
" Albert, by divine mercy the most holy Roman Church's Titular 
Presbyter Cardinal of St. Chrysogonus, Archbishop of Mayence 
and Magdeburg, Primate Elector of the Empire, Administrator of 
Halberstadt, Marquis of Brandenburg." The lower inscription 
reads: "Thus were his eyes, his cheeks, his features. Aged 29. 


The plate was engraved for a book of relics, etc., entitled " Das 
Heiligthum zu Sachsen," belonging to the Church of Sts. Maurice 
and Mary Magdalen, at Halle, printed in 1524. 

"Piece Tres Rare." (Bartsch, Vol. VH., p. no.) 

Portrait of Albert of Mayence. Seen in Profile. 

Bartsch, No. 103. Heller, No. 1035. Retberg, No. 254. 

Dated 1523. 

Called also " The Great Cardinal " to distinguish it from " The 
Little Cardinal." (Bartsch, No. 102.) 

The inscriptions are identical, excepting that the age has been 
changed to 2>Z and the date to 1523. 

Portrait of Erasmus of Rotterdam. 

Bartsch, No. 107. Heller, No. 1047. Retberg, No. 266. 

Dated 1526. 

Desiderius Erasmus, the most celebrated of the humanists 
north of the Alps, and in certain ways a pioneer of the Reforma- 
tion, was born at Rotterdam on October 28, 1467, and died at 
Basel on July 12, 1536, 

Durer met him and drew his portrait several times in the 
Netherlands (1520-21), and it was doubtless from one of these 
drawings that the engraving was made five years later. Neither 
Erasmus nor his friends were pleased with the portrait, but as an 
engraving it ranks amongst the artist's best. 

This portrait was, possibly, the last of Diirer's engravings on 
copper, the only other works of the kind dated 1526 being the 
portrait of Melancthon and the Apostle Philip. 



The Carrying Off of a Young Wo^nan. 

Bartsch, No. 72. Heller, No. 813. Retberg, No. 224. 

Dated 1516. 

This plate was etched upon iron, as were also the five others 
done by Diirer. The evidence is furnished by some of the plates, 
still in existence, and by the peculiar character of the spots in the 
later impressions, which are due to the rusting, and consequent 
roughening, of the plates. 

This plate is also called " The Rape on the Unicorn," "Pluto 
Carrying Off Proserpine," and " Nessus Carrying Off Dejanira." 


The Birth of the Virgin. 

Bartsch, No. 80. Heller, No. 1709. Retberg, No. 67. 

The Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth. 

Bartsch, No. 84. Heller, No. 1730. Retberg, No. 71. 

The Death of the Virgin. 

Bartsch, No. 93. Heller, No. 1787. Retberg, No. 80. 

Dated 15 10. 

The three last named prints are from the series of twenty 
cuts illustrating the " Life of the Virgin." This series is, to-day, the 
most admired of all the woodcuts from the designs of Diirer. 

Saint George Killing the Dragon. 

Bartsch, No. 11 1. Heller, No. 832. Retberg, No. 86. 


BURGMAIR, HANS. [German School, 1473-1559. (?)] 

Born at Augsburg in 1473. 

Pupil and friend of Albert Diirer. 

He was a painter of considerable merit and some authorities 
have thought that he cut some of his own designs, but there seems 
no reason to think that he did more than furnish the designs. The 
endless imagination, the richness of suggestion, as well as truth to 
the life of his time, place him amongst the greatest illustrative 
artists of the world. 

The date of his death is not known, being variously placed from 
1517 to 1559. 


A Stag Hunt. 

Bartsch, No. 80. 

A Battle. 

Bartsch, No. 80. 

From a series of 237 pieces, engraved by various artists, after 
the designs of Burgmair, and entitled " Der Weiss Konig." 

This series shows the principal events of the life of the Emperor 
Maximilian I. 

Bartsch, Vol. VII., pp. 224-229. 

RAIMONDI, MARC ANTONIO. [Italian School, 1485- 

1530. (?)] 

The greatest of all the Italian engravers. 

The dates of his birth and of his death are not certainly 
known. He was born at Bologna about 1485 and died in the same 
city about 1530. 

His first master was Francesco Raibolini, called Francia, a 
well-known painter and goldsmith, who taught him to work in 
niello. His first engraving, for its own sake, bears the date of 1502, 
and is from a picture by Francia, representing Pyramusand Thisbe. 

In 1509 he was engaged at Venice in engraving copies on 
metal of seventeen of Albert Diirer's woodcuts from "The Life of 
the Virgin," of the thirty-six cuts from the " Little Passion — on 
wood," and of the engraving of "Adam and Eve." There is some 


doubt as to whether Marc Antonio did this with a fraudulent 
intention or not, but as he signed his copies with the monogram of 
Diii-er, it seems probable that he either desired to sell his copies 
for the originals, or profit in some other way by the reputation of 

The famous plate after Michel Angelo's " Cartoon of Pisa " was 
engraved at Florence in the year 1510. 

About a year later he went to Rome, where he, at first, con- 
tinued his imitation of Diirer's works, but, later, enrolled himself 
among the followers of Raphael, in whose studio, and under whose 
direction, he worked for the next eight or nine years. 

Leaving Raphael's studio, he set up a studio of his own, where 
he received pupils, among whom the most famous were Agostino 
De'Musi and Marco Dente da Ravenna. 

Much of the perfection of Marc Antonio's work is doubtless 
due to the influence of Raphael, from whose drawings many of his 
finest plates were engraved. Some of these original drawings still 
exist, but in many cases the engravings show variations from the 
drawings, probably suggested by Raphael himself. 

After the death of Raphael in 1520, Raimondi engraved numer- 
ous plates after the designs of Giulio Romano, but none of these 
plates are so highly esteemed as those engraved after the designs 
of Raphael. 

For engraving a series of indecent subjects, illustrating some 
sonnets of Pietro Aretino, Raimondi was imprisoned by Pope 
Clement VII., but through the intercession of some of the cardinals 
and of the painter Baccio Bandinelli, he was released. On re- 
covering his liberty, and desirous of expressing his gratitude to 
Bandinelli, he engraved his celebrated print of the " Martyrdom of 
Saint Lawrence " after the painting of Bandinelli. This engraving 
was shown to the Pope, who was so pleased with it that he at once 
took Raimondi under his special protection. 

At the sack of Rome by the Spaniards in 1527, Marc Antonio 
lost all his possessions, and left that city for Bologna, where he 

For over three centuries the engravings of Marc Antonio 
have enjoyed a reputation comparable only to that of the paint- 
ings of Raphael. Fine impressions of his best plates are exceed- 
ino-ly rare, and when offered at auction sales excite a fierce compe- 


J. D. PASSAVANT, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. I., pp. 248-250. 


The Massacre of the Innocents. 

Bartsch, No. 20. 

From a design by Raphael. 

Bartsch thinks that this plate may have been engraved by 
Marco Dente da Ravenna after the first plate (Bartsch, No. 18) by 
Marc Antonio, the inscription of which reads : raph vrbi. inve aa.. 

It seems unlikely that Marc Antonio would have twice en- 
graved such an important plate, but, on the other hand, the qual- 
ity of the work, though inferior to the first plate (Bartsch, No. 18), 
is so good that it is hard to believe it is from the hand of another 

From the collection of Franz Josef : Grafen Von Enzenberg. 

The Descent from the Cross. 

Bartsch, No. 32. 

From a design by Raphael. 

Saint Pattl Preaching at Athens. 

Bartsch, No. 44. 

From a design by Raphael. 

The Virgin Seated Up07t the Clouds. 

Bartsch, No. 47. 

From a design by Raphael. 

From the collection of Ambroise Firmin-Didot. 

The Virgin and Child, With the Palm Tree. 

Bartsch, No. 62. 

The Virgin is accompanied by Saint Elizabeth. The infant 
Christ, seated upon His mother's knee, extends His hand in bless- 
ing toward Saint John, who kneels before Him. 

This plate is one of the most perfect that Marc Antonio has 
engraved after Raphael, both as to drawing and engraving. 


Jesus Christ, the Virgin and Three Saints. 

Bartsch, No. 113. 

From a design by Raphael. 

This plate is often called " The Five Saints." 

The Virgin is seen in the clouds at Christ's right hand and 
Saint John the Evangelist at his left. Upon the ground, at the 
right-hand side of the print, Saint Catharine, kneeling, is seen ; 
while Saint Paul, standing, faces her from the left. 

Saint Cecilia. 

Bartsch, No. 116. 

From a design by Raphael. 

Saint Cecilia is attended on the right by Mary Magdalene and 
Saint Augustine, and on the left by Saint Paul and Saint John. 

The drawing, from which this engraving was made, differs 
considerably from the painting by Raphael of the same subject in 
the Church of Saint John at Bologna. 

The Trittmph of Titus. 

Bartsch, No. 213. 

From the design of Gianantonio Razzi. 

This engraving, frequently and incorrectly called " The 
Triumph of Marcus Aurelius," is one of Raimondi's finest plates. 

The original drawing by Gianantonio Razzi, now in the Biblio- 
theque Nationale in Paris, was formerly attributed to Andrea 
Mantegna and also to Francesco Francia. 


Bartsch, No. 247. 

From a design by Raphael. 

Raphael painted the same subject on one of the walls of the 
" Stanza of the Signature," in the Vatican, but this plate was en- 
graved from the drawing, not from the painting, from which it 
differs considerably. 

This engraving is one of the most famous and most beautiful 
of all Raimondi's works. 


Trajan s Victory. 

Bartsch, No. 361. 

From the collection of Ambroise Firmin-Didot. 

This plate was engraved after one of the bas-reliefs on the 
Arch of Constantine and is one of the most esteemed works of 
Marc Antonio. 


Bartsch, No. 393. 

From a design by Raphael. 

This is not Marc Antonio's engraving, but the "Copy D" de- 
scribed by Bartsch. The engraver is not known and this print is 
in reverse of the original. 

The Serpent Appearing to a Young Man. 

Bartsch, No. 396. 

Engraved by Marc Antonio from his own design. 

The Pestilence. 

Bartsch, No. 417. 

"This superb print is extremely rare." Bartsch, p. 314. 

Portrait of the Poet Aretino. 

Bartsch, No. 513. 

From the painting by Titian. 

This print is one of the rarest, as it is also one of the best 
engraved, most finished, and at the same time, most artistic, of all 
Marc Antonio's works. 

Pietro Aretino was an Italian writer of satirical sonnets and 
comedies entitled " The Scourge of Princes." He was born at 
Arezzo, Italy, on April 20, 1492, and died at Venice, on October 21, 

The Angel Appearing to Joachim. 

Bartsch, No. 622. 

Jesus Christ Taking Leave of His Mother. 

Bartsch, No. 636. 

These are two of the seventeen plates engraved by Marc 
Antonio after the series of woodcuts by Albert Dlirer. " The Life 


of the Virgin." Marc Antonio signed sixteen of these plates with 
the monogram of Diirer, affixing his own mark to the seventeenth 
plate only. 

DE'MUSI, AGOSTINO. [Italian School, 1490-1540, (?)] 

Born about 1490. Died about 1540. 

Frequently called Agostino Veneziano, though his family 
name was De'Musi. He was a native of Venice, but seems to 
have early moved to Florence, which city he left in 15 16 to go to 
Rome, where he died. 

He was, together with Marco Dente da Ravenna, one of the 
principal pupils and assistants of Marc Antonio, but his work 
never equalled in quality that of his master. 


A Roman Emperor Meeting a Young JVarrior. 

Bartsch, No. 196. 

This engraving would seem to have been made after a drawing 
by Raphael, and is one of those in which Agostino Veneziano has 
best followed Marc Antonio's manner of engraving. 

LUCAS VAN LEYDEN. [Dutch School, 1494-1533.] 

His family name was Jacobsz. The son of Huig Jacobsz, an 
obscure painter. Born at Leyden in 1494. At the age of fourteen 
he engraved his celebrated plate of " The Monk Sergius Killed by 
Mahomet," and in various other branches of art his talent was 
equally remarkable at an early age. 

In 1527 he journeyed through the Netherlands, studying the 
paintings there to be seen. From this journey he returned broken 
in health, and with the idea that he had been poisoned. From this 
time onward, until he died six years later, in 1533, he was continu- 
ously ill and seems to have been confined to his bed most of the 
time, and we are told that having contrived a manner of painting 
and engraving in bed, he may truly be said to have worked until 
the day of his death. 

His industry was remarkable, even in that day of remarkable 
men. He painted in oils, distemper and on glass, and treated 


with great success landscapes, portraits and subjects chosen from 
history. He carried the art of engraving to a wonderful pitch of 
perfection, considering the multitude of his other works and the 
shortness of his life. His engravings rank with those of Marc 
Antonio and Albert Diirer. 

Good impressions are exceedingly rare, and even during the 
lifetime of the artist sold at high prices. The plates were so 
delicately engraved that they yielded few good impressions, and 
Lucas was too true an artist to permit any inferior proofs to be 
circulated during his lifetime. After his death many inferior im- 
pressions were printed, but they are faint and lifeless. 

ADAM BARTSCH, Vol. VII., pp. 331-443. 

J. D. PASSAVANT, Vol. III., pp. 3-1 1. 

Samson and Delilah. 

Bartsch, No. 25. 

This is one of Lucas van Leyden's earliest plates and was 
probably engraved in the year 1508. 

Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. 

Bartsch, No. 34. 

The Baptism of Jesus Christ. 

Bartsch, No. 40. 

The Resurrection of Lazarus. 

Bartsch, No. 42. 

Lazarus has just emerged from the tomb and extends his 
hands towards a man, who unties the band that binds them. 
Among the onlookers, the sisters of Lazarus, Mary, kneeling, to 
the left, and Martha, standing, and facing her, to the right, may be 

This plate is engraved in the early manner of the artist, and 
was probably executed about 1508. 


Saint Matthew. 

Bartsch, No. 98. 

One of a series of fourteen engravings representing Jesus 
Christ and the Apostles. 
Engraved about 151 1. 

Mary Magdalen Ejijoying the Pleasures of the 


Bartsch, No. 122. 

Dated 15 19, and signed. 

This print is commonly known by the name of " The Dance of 
the Magdalen." It is one of Lucas van Leyden's finest engrav- 
ings. Good impressions are extremely rare, and even during the 
lifetime of the artist sold at a high price. 

Saint Catharine. 

Bartsch, No. 125. 

Dated 1520. 

This plate was first etched and then retouched with the burin. 
The etched work can clearly be distinguished in the lines of the 
hair and head. 

Albert Durer engraved some of his most beautiful plates upon 
an etched foundation, and Lucas may have borrowed the idea 
from Diirer. 

The Poet Virgil Suspended in a Basket. 

Bartsch, No. 136. 

Dated 1525, and signed. 

An illustration of a story, possibly without foundation, told 
about the poet Virgil. This same subject was, several times, 
treated by artists of the sixteenth century. 

This plate, one of Lucas' very finest, is engraved in a manner 
even more perfect than is usual with this artist. The grouping 
and expression of the figures shows the hand of a great master. 
Bartsch, repeating the story told by Vasari, says that Albert 
Durer was so impressed with the beauty of this engraving, that 
he felt impelled to produce a masterpiece also, and engraved his 
celebrated plate of " The Knight, Death and the Devil." But this 
statement would seem to be in error, since Durer's plate was en- 
graved in 15 13 and consequently twelve years ^,f/^r<? this one by 



Bartsch, No. 139. 

This was the last engraving of the artist. He died, after a 
lingering illness extending over several years, before he had 
entirely finished the plate. We are told that shortly before his 
death he requested to see the plate and looked with interest upon 
the last production of a talent that he had cultivated, throughout 
his life, with such good results. 


1 496-1 5 2 7.] 

Born at Ravenna about 1496. Died at Rome in 1527. The 
reputation of Marc Antonio drew many young artists to Rome to 
study under him, and of all his pupils Marco Dente da Ravenna 
and Agostino De'Musi were the most important. 

The original engravings of Marco are unequal in merit and 
are inferior to his copies of Marc Antonio's plates. Some authori- 
ties state that the second plate of " The Massacre of the Innocents" 
is by Marco. It is superlatively good work for a copy. 


The Stahte of Marcus Aurelius. 

Bartsch, No. 515. 

This unrivalled antique bronze equestrian statue of Marcus 
Aurelius, anciently supposed to represent Constantine, was placed 
before the Church of S. Giovanni in Lateran, from 1187 to 1538, 
and now stands in the centre of the Piazza del Campidoglio, facing 
the stairs leading from the Capitol to the Piazza Ara Coeli, in Rome. 

BONASONE, GIULIO. [Italian School, 1500-1580. (?)] 

A pupil of Marc Antonio. 

Bonasone was born at Bologna, but the dates of his birth and 
of his death are not certainly known. His earliest dated engraving 
is marked 1531, and his latest 1574; one may therefore conclude 
that he was born about 1500 and died about 1580, and since almost 
all his plates exhibit, to an equal degree, the same qualities, it is 


probable that Bonasone did not begin to engrave until his style, as 
a painter, was mature. 

As an engraver, his plates are more interesting, in the majority 
of cases, from their directness of purpose than from their delicacy 
of workmanship. He would seem to have desired less to obtain 
the reputation of a great engraver, than to render his works inter- 
esting by the choice of their subjects. 

Many of his plates are from his own designs, and when, as 
frequently was the case, he engraved from the works of other 
masters, it was usually from their drawings and not from their 
paintings that he worked. 

ADAM BARTSCH, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. XV., pp. 103-178. 

J. D, PASSAVANT, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. VI., pp. 102-103. 

Clelia Crossing the Tiber. 

Bartsch, No. 83. 

Duplicate impression from the British Museum. 

Engraved after Polidoro da Caravaggio. 

The scene represented is Clelia crossing the Tiber and carrying 
with her, to Rome, her companions who were prisoners in the camp 
of Porsenna. 


Bartsch, No. 83. 

Engraved from an original design by Bonasone. 

Flora and Her Nymphs Making JVreaths of 


Bartsch, No. in. 

Engraved after Giulio Romano. 

BEHAM, HANS SEBALD. [German School, 1500-1550.] 

Born at Nuremberg in 1500. Pupil of his uncle, Barthel Beham, 
and of Albert Diirer. 

He worked in his native town until about 1540 when he re- 
moved to Frankfort, where he died in 1550. 

As an engraver he possessed considerable skill and a ready 


invention. His style is very neat and delicate and his drawing, 
though sometimes rather Gothic in effect, is generally correct. 

His dissolute habits shortened his life, but seemingly had no 
ill effect on his art. 


Hercules Burnt by Philoctetes. 

Bartsch, No. 107, 
Dated 1548, and signed. 

One of a series of twelve engravings illustrative of the labors 
of Hercules. 

A Satyr Playing Upon a Horn. 

Bartsch, No. iii. 

An Ornamental Design. 

Not described by Bartsch. 

BEHAM, BARTHEL. [German School, 1502-1540.] 

Born in Nuremberg in 1502. 

He is reputed to have been a pupil of Albert Durer and, later, 
to have studied at Rome and at Bologna under Marc Antonio Rai- 
mondi, for whom he engraved several plates that Marc Antonio 
published as his own work. 

As an engraver, Barthel Beham may be considered as one of 
the most successful of those who have attempted to follow the fine 
style of Marc Antonio. His drawing is correct and often masterly 
and there is fine expression in his heads. 

He died in Italy about 1540. 


Portrait of the Emperor Charles V. 

Bartsch, No. 60. 

Dated 1531, and signed. 


Portrait of the Emperor Ferdinand I. 

Bartsch, No. 6i. 

Dated 1531, and signed. 

First state, before the address of J. ab Heyden. 

These two portraits rank among the best works of this artist. 

ALDEGREVER, HEINRICH. [German School, 1502- 

1560. (?)] 

Born at Zoust, in Westphalia, in 1502, as we learn from the two 
portraits he engraved of himself. The exact date of his death is 
unknown, but from the evidence of his latest dated work it must 
have been about 1560. 

Being greatly impressed by the beauty of the works of Albert 
Durer, Aldegrever went to Nuremberg, where he studied both 
painting and engraving with that master. 

He made rapid progress in both arts, but at first painted only. 
A few years later he devoted himself entirely to engraving and 
acquired considerable reputation. His style of work is founded 
upon that of Albert Diirer, and is remarkably delicate, precise and 
neat. A certain Gothic stiffness is, however, observable, especially 
in the drapery of his figures. 


Samson and Delilah. 

Bartsch, No. 35. 

Dated 1528, and signed. 

The Virgin Standing Upon a Crescent. 

Bartsch, No. 50. 

Dated 1533, and signed. 


Bartsch, No. 118. 
Dated 1552, and signed. 

One of a series of fourteen plates emblematic of the virtues, 
and of the vices that are their opposites. 


Portrait of Bernard Knipperdolling. 

Bartsch, No. 183. 
Dated 1536, and signed. 
Impressions of this plate are rare. 

Bernard Knipperdolling was the leader of the Anabaptists of 

CORT, CORNELIS. [Dutch School, 1536-1578.] 

Born at Horn, in Holland, in 1536. 

He was first instructed by Hieronymus Cock, for whom he 
executed several plates after Rogier van der Weyden, Michiel 
Coxie and others. Having acquired by these plates some reputa- 
tion, he went to Italy, and first resided in the house of Titian at 
Venice, where he engraved some of Titian's finest works. 

He afterwards removed to Rome, where he established a 
school of line-engraving, in which he sought to combine the simple 
manner of Marc Antonio Raimondi, with a more brilliant and 
broader style. This gave to the art a direction which it long re- 
tained, and which was adopted and extended in Italy by Agostino 
Caracci. The art of engraving had, hitherto, been generally con- 
fined to small plates, and it was Cornells Cort who opened the 
way to the larger treatment of subjects and portraits. 

He died at Rome in 1578. 

''Ecce Homo. 

Engraved in 1572. 

WIERIX, JAN. [Dutch School, 1549-not known.] 

Born at Antwerp (or Amsterdam) in 1549. 

It is not known by whom he was instructed but he appears to 
have formed his style by a study of Albert Diirer's engravings. 
He made some very deceiving copies of Diirer's plates, and is gen- 
erally considered to have been a truer artist than either of his 
brothers Anthonie or Hieronymus. 

The date of his death is not known. 

The Adoration of tJie Magi. 


SADELER, JOHAN. [Dutch School, 1550-1600.] 

Born at Brussels in 1550. 

His father was an engraver of ornaments, to be inlaid with 
gold or silver, on steel and iron, and Johan Sadeler was brought up 
to the same business. At an early age, however, he applied himself 
to drawing and studying the human figure. When about twenty 
years of age he commenced engraving on copper, and his first 
plates, from the designs of Crispin van den Broeck, were so favor- 
ably received, that he determined to devote himself entirely to 

He travelled through Germany and Italy and improved his 
style. His later plates show a manner far less stiff and hard than 
do his earlier ones. 

He died in Venice in 1600. 

Saint Cecilia. 

WIERIX, HIERONYMUS. [Dutch School, 1551-1619.] 

Born at Antwerp (or Amsterdam) in 155 1. He is supposed to 
have been a pupil of his brother Jan, whose style he so exactly 
followed that it is often difficult to distinguish their works one 
from another. His prints are more numerous than those of Jan 
Wierix, and are mostly of religious subjects, frequently from his 
own designs. 

He died in 1619. 

A Danish Horse. 

A French Horse. 

A Roman Horse. 

A Saxon Horse. 

Horses Playing. 

The Five IVise Virgins. 

The Holy Family JVith Saint Anne. 



ALBERTI, CHERUBINO. [Italian School, 1552-1615.] 

Born at Borgo S. Sepolcro in 1552. Pupil of his father, 
Michele Alberti, who instructed him in the elements of art and 
in painting in fresco. Cherubino painted several compositions 
in fresco, of which the best were in the Church of Sta. MariaMn 

Later, he seems to have almost entirely abandoned painting 
and to have devoted himself to engraving. For his master in en- 
graving he chose Cornells Cort, or, according to some authorities, 
Agostino Caracci. 

He engraved 172 plates, of which number a portion may have 
been from his own designs. 

In general, his plates show taste and good drawing in the 
figures, and a fine expression in the heads. The draperies are 
frequently hard. 

He died in 1615. 


Vemis and Cupid. 

Bartsch, No. 93. 

After a design by Polidoro Caravaggio. 

WIERIX, ANTHONIE. [Dutch School, 1555-not known.] 

Born at Antwerp (or Amsterdam) about 1555. He was the 
youngest of the Wierix family. His small plates are executed in 
the finished style of his brothers, but his larger prints exhibit more 
freedom and facility. He engraved similar subjects to theirs and 
sometimes worked in conjunction with them. 

The Crucifixion. 

CARACCI, AGOSTINO. [Italian School, 1557-1601.] 

Born at Bologna in 1557. The elder brother of Annibale 
Caracci and cousin of Lodovico Caracci. 

He was intended by his father for the profession of a gold- 
smith and at the age of fourteen had engraved some plates, when 
he was persuaded by Lodovico to study painting. He accordingly 


became a pupil of Prospero Fontana and, later, learned the art of 
modelling with the sculptor Minganti, and pen drawing with 
Bartolomeo Passerotti. 

On leaving the school of Passerotti, Agostino, together with 
his brother Annibale, passed some time at Parma, studying the 
works of Correggio and Parmegiano. He afterwards v/ent to 
Venice, where he had an opportunity of perfecting himself in en- 
graving under Cornells Cort, by whose instruction he became the 
greatest engraver of his time. 

Agostino was celebrated not only as a painter and as an en- 
graver, but we are told that he was equally distinguished in 
philosophy, mathematics, geography, astrology, history, poetry, 
medicine and music. 

He engraved nearly three hundred plates, in which the cor- 
rectness of his design is only equalled by the beauty of execution. 

He died in j6oi, and was buried in the cathedral at Parma. 


Portrait of Titian. 

Bartsch, No. 154. 

Engraved in 15S7. 

First state, before the inscription above. 

Impressions in this state are very rare. 

"Augustine Caracci, of the Bolognese family, memorable in art, 
added to considerable success as painter undoubted triumphs as 
engraver. His prints are numerous, and many are regarded with 
favor ; but out of the long list not one is so sure of that longevity 
allotted to art as his portrait of Titian, which bears date 1587, 
eleven years after the death of the latter. Over it is the inscrip- 
tion, Titiani Vicellii Pictoris celeberrimi ac famosisshni vera effigies, to 
which is added beneath Cujus nonien orbis cofititiere non valet ! Al- 
though founded on originals by Titian himself, it was probably 
designed by the remarkable engraver. It is very like, and yet 
unlike the familiar portrait of which we have a recent engraving 
by Mandel, from a repetition in the gallery of Berlin. Looking at 
it, we are reminded of the terms by which Vasari described the 
great painter, giiidicioso, bello e stupendo. Such a head, with such 
visible power, justifies these words, or at least makes us believe 
them entirely applicable. It is bold, broad, strong and instinct 
with life. 


This print, like the Erasmus of Diirer, is among those selected 
for exhibition at the British Museum, and it deserves the honor. 
Though only paper with black lines, it is, by the genius of the 
artist, as good as a picture. In all engraving nothing is better." 
(Charles Sumner, ''The Best Portraits in Engraving,' p. lo.) 

GHISI, DIANA. [Italian School, i557-i59o- (?)] 

The daughter of Giovanni Battista Ghisi, and the sister of 
Adamo and Giorgio Ghisi. All the members of this family added 
the word Mantuano to their name. 

Of the 46 plates engraved by Diana, 23 bear dates from 1573 to 
1588, so that though the exact years of her birth and of her death 
are not known, they can be guessed with some degree of accuracy. 

Diana was probably instructed in engraving by her brother 
Giorgio, as her early prints show signs of his influence. These 
early engravings by her are somewhat weak, but her style grew 
bolder and firmer in her later work. 

The effect of her best prints is often good, though at times the 
drawing is faulty. 

She married the architect Francesco da Volterra, and became 
a citizen of that town, calling herself, upon a plate engraved in 
1585, " Diana Mantuana civis Volaterana." 

pp. 432-452- 

J. D. PASSAVANT, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. VI., pp. 141-145. 

The Entombment of Jestis Christ. 

Bartsch, No. 9. 

Second state, with the words "Horatius Pacificus Formis. 

Engraved in 1588, after Parisi. 

The Archangels Michael, Gabriel and Raphael 
Adoring Jesus Christ. 

Bartsch, No. 31. 

First state, before the letters R. V. I. to the right. 

Engraved after Raphael. 


GOLTZIUS, HENDRIK. [Dutch School, 1558-1617.] 

Painter and engraver. 

Born at Mulbrecht, in the Duchy of Juliers, in 1558. His father 
was an eminent glass painter, and instructed him in that art. He 
was taught engraving by Theodore Coernhert, but soon surpassed 
his master, for whom, as also for Philipp Galle, he executed several 

His engravings number over 500 plates, and are highly es- 

Died at Haarlem in 1617. 


" Contemporary with Caracci was Henry Goltzius, at Harlem, 
excellent as painter, but, like the Italian, pre-eminent as engraver. 
His prints show mastery of the art, making something like an 
epoch in its history. His unwearied skill in the use of the burin 
appears in a tradition gathered by Longhi from Wille, that, having 
commenced a line, he carried it to the end without once stopping, 
while the long and bright threads of copper turned up were brushed 
aside by his flowing beard, which at the end of a day's labor so 
shone in the light of a candle that his companions nicknamed him 
' the man with the golden beard.' There are prints by him which 
shine more than his beard." (Charles Sumner, "The Best Por- 
traits in Engraving," pp. lo-ii.) 

The Virgin Weeping Over the Dead Body of 
Jesus Christ. 

Bartsch, No. 41. 

This beautiful plate, both in composition and in engraving, 
strongly resembles, without in any sense being a copy of, the work 
of Albert Diirer, and shows how completely Goltzius could adopt 
the manner of any master he desired. 

The Magdalen Praying in the Desert. 

Bartsch, No. 58. 
Dated 1585, and signed. 

This plate is engraved in what is known as the " earlier man- 
ner " of Goltzius. 


The Dog of Goltzius. 

Bartsch, No. 190. 

The portrait of the boy is supposed to be that of the son of 
Theodore Frisius, a painter of Venice, to whom Goltzius dedicated 
the print. 

This is considered to be one of the artist's finest plates, and is 
one of the rarest. 

It has been copied four times. 

CARACCI, ANNIBALE. [Italian School, 1560-1609.] 

Born at Bologna in 1560. 

The younger brother of Agostino Caracci, and the cousin and 
pupil of Lodovico Caracci. 

This artist received but little education, and is reported to 
have been hardly able to read or to write. At the age of 28 he 
produced some fine paintings, which show the influence of his 
studies of the great Venetian painters. Later, having elevated and 
refined^his mind by the study of the masterpieces of antiquity and 
the works of Raphael and Michel Angelo, he became one of the 
most skillful painters of all the schools of Italy, ranking after 
Raphael, Titian and Correggio. 

Annibale Caracci engraved about twenty plates (Bartsch ad- 
mits but eighteen as genuine) of various degrees of excellence and 
of considerable variety of workmanship. His early plates are care- 
fully engraved, the burin being used throughout. His later ones 
are entirely etched, the burin being used only to strengthen the 
shadows and harmonize the composition. 

He died at Rome in 1609. 


The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

Bartsch, No. 2. 

MULLER, JAN. [Dutch School, 1570-not known.] 

Born at Amsterdam about 1570. 

He was a pupil of Goltzius, whose vigorous style he followed 
with an enthusiasm bordering on extravagance. Jan Muller is, 
perhaps, the artist who has handled the graver with the most dar- 


ing facility, and his works are worthy of the admiration and study 
of those who desire to distinguish themselves in the free use of the 
burin. The economy of labor in many of his plates is wonderful. 

The date of his death is not known, but his finest works were 
produced between the years 1589 and 1625. 


Saint John Baptizing Jesus Christ in the River 


Bartsch, No. 3. 
From his own design. 

MATHAM, JACOB. [Dutch School, 1571-1631.] 

Born at Haarlem in 157 1. Step-son and pupil of Hendrik 
Goltzius. He made a journey to Italy, and while in that country 
engraved several plates after the works of the most eminent Italian 

Upon his return to Haarlem he worked under the direction of 
Goltzius, and executed a great variety of prints after some of the 
best painters of the Netherlands. His engravings number over 300 

He died at Haarlem in 1631. 


Judith With the Head of Holof ernes. 

Bartsch, No. 254. 

Engraved after a design by Hendrik Goltzius. 

One of a series of four plates representing the four principal 
heroes and heroines of the Old Testament. 

First state, before the addition of the inscription, "J. C. 
Visscher Ex." beside the monogram of Goltzius. 

GALLE, CORNELIS (The Elder). [Dutch School, 1576-1656.] 

Born at Antwerp in 1576. 
Pupil and son of Philipp Galle. 

Following the example of his brother Theodoor, Cornells Galle 
visited Rome, w^here he resided for several years, and where he 


acquired a correctness of design and a freedom of execution in 
which he greatly surpassed both his father and his brother. 

Having engraved several plates at Rome, after the Italian 
masters, he returned to Antwerp, where he carried on the business 
of a print-seller, and engraved a number of plates after the works 
of his countrymen and after his own designs. 

He died in 1656. 

Saint Dominic. 

Engraved from his own design. 

VORSTERMAN, LUCAS. [Dutch School, 1578-1660.] 

Born at Antwerp in 1578. 

He first studied painting in the school of Rubens, but was ad- 
vised by his master to devote himself entirely to engraving. This 
he did, and, under the direction of Rubens, became one of the best 
engravers of his time. 

Vorsterman visited England in the reign of Charles I., and 
lived there from 1624 to 1631, being employed by the King and by 
Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. He engraved fine portraits of 
both his patrons. 

Vorsterman returned to Antwerp in 1631 and died about 1660. 

Portrait of Desiderius Erasmus, of Rotterdam. 

After the painting by Hans Holbein. (Nagler, Kiinstler-Lexi- 
con XX., p. 540. No. 30.) 

See remarks upon Albert Diirer's portrait of Erasmus. 



Born at Leyden about 1580. Brother of Jakob Isaaksz van 
Swanenburch, whose greatest claim to our remembrance is that 
he was the first master of Rembrandt. 

Willem's style of engraving is bold, and his prints bear some 
resemblance to those of Hendrik Goltzius. 

He died at Leyden, on the 15th of August, 1612. 


The Murder of Caracalla. 

M. Aurelius Antoninus, commonly called Caracalla, from the 
long tunic he wore after the manner of the Gauls, was Emperor of 
Rome from 211 to 217 a.d. 

His reign was marked by a succession of cruelties and extrava- 
gances. He assassinated his brother Geta and caused the death 
of many of the most distinguished men of his time, including the 
celebrated Jurist Papinian. 

He was murdered at Edessa by Macrinus. 

GOUDT, HENDRIK VAN. [Dutch School, 1585-1630.] 

Count Palatine, amateur painter and engraver. Born at 
Utrecht in 1585. Died, according to some writers from the effects 
of poison, about 1630. When young, he went to Rome to study 
art, and in that city met Abraham Elsheimer, the painter, whose 
most liberal patron he became, and after whose works his seven 
plates were engraved. 

These plates are engraved in a style peculiar to himself. 
They are wrought entirely with the graver, and their extraordinary 
effect is produced, not by the usual method of deepening and 
strengthening the strokes, but by delicately crossing and recrossing 
the lines several times in the shadows. Though his plates are 
finished with a most remarkable precision, they show a surpris- 
ingly free and dexterous handling of the graver. 

Jupiter and Merctiry as Guests of Philemon 
and Baucis. 

A picture nearly corresponding in subject to this engraving is 
in the Dresden Gallery. Hiibner's Verzeichniss, No. 1723. 

The Dawn of Day. 

DE PASSE, CRISPIN (The Younger). [Dutch School, 

1585-1660. (?)] 

Born in Utrecht in 1585. The eldest son and the pupil of 
Crispin De Passe, the elder. 

The date of his death is not known, but he was alive in 1659. 


Saint Martha. 

Engraved from his own design. 

BOLSWERT, SCHELTE A. [Dutch School, 1586-1659.] 

Born at Bolswert, in Friesland, about 1586. Brother of Boetius 
Adam a Bolswert, with whom he settled in Antwerp, where he be- 
came one of the most celebrated engravers of his country. 

He died in Antwerp in 1659. 

His finest engravings are after the paintings of Rubens and 
Van Dyck. It is said that Rubens often retouched proofs of the 
plates engraved after his pictures, and that these corrections con- 
tributed not a little to the expression and merit of the finished 
plates by Schelte a Bolswert. 

Bolswert engraved with equal success historical subjects, 
landscapes, hunting scenes and portraits. The number of his 
plates is very considerable. 

The Great Lion H^mt. 

From the painting by Peter Paul Rubens. The original 
picture is in the Munich Gallery. Smith. Cat.rais.247. Waagen. 
Handb. II., p. 272. 

LASNE, MICHEL. [French School, 1596-1667.] 

Born at Caen, in Normandy, in 1596. He appears to have 
imitated the style of Cornells Bloemaert and F. Villamena. He 
died in Paris in 1667. 

Lasne was one of the first of the French engravers to dis- 
tinguish himself by a free and dexterous management of the burin. 

He was very industrious and engraved a number of plates. 

The Virgin and Child in the Clouds, Attended by 
Angels, Appearing to Saint Francis. 

From the painting by Simon Vouet. 
Engraved in 1637. 


VAN DYCK, ANTONI. [Flemish School, 1599-1641.] 

Born at Antwerp on March 22, 1599. He was the seventh child 
of a family of twelve. His father, Frans Van Dyck, was a silk 
merchant, and his mother, Maria Cuypers, was famous as an 
amateur flower painter and embroiderer. Van Dyck was ap- 
prenticed to Hendrik van Balen when but ten years of age, and 
in 1615 entered, as pupil, the studio of Rubens, remaining with 
this master as a pupil until 1620, when he was engaged as an as- 
sistant. In 1618 Van Dyck was admitted into the Guild of St. Luke 
at Antwerp, and three years later paid a brief visit to England, and 
worked in the service of Charles I,, from whom he received ;^ioo for 
special services. 

Towards the close of 1622 he returned to Antwerp and in 1623, 
by the advice of Rubens, set out for Italy. Here he stayed princi- 
pally in Genoa, but visited also Rome, Venice and Palermo, execut- 
ing many important works. 

Upon his return to Antwerp in 1626, Van Dyck became, at 
once, famous as a portrait painter and was deluged with commis- 

It was about this time that he painted the famous series of 
portraits of eminent artists of his time. This series has never been 
equalled for the admirable variety of attitudes and the character- 
istic expression of the heads. They were engraved by the most 
eminent artists of the time, Vorsterman, Bolswert, Pontius and 
others, and several of them were etched by Van Dyck himself. 

In 1630 Van Dyck went from the Hague — whither he had been 
invited by the Prince of Orange — to London, but not meeting with 
much encouragement there, returned to Antwerp. Two years 
later, Charles I., seeing one of Van Dyck's portraits, discovered 
how great an artist had left his kingdom and dispatched Sir Kenelm 
Digby to request the painter to return. Van Dyck was graciously 
received by the King, who gave him apartments at Blackfriars, 
and bestowed upon him the honor of Knighthood on July 5, 1632, 
and in the next year granted him an annual pension of ;!^2oo. 

Van Dyck lived in almost royal manner in London and at 
his summer home in Eltham, and continued to be, until his death, 
which occurred at Blackfriars on December 9, 1641, the favorite 
painter in England, not only of the King but of nearly all the 
famous men and women of his time. He is said to have received 
about £,60 for his full-length, and £^0 for his half-length portraits. 





" No true critic can be indifferent to Vandyke. He is one of 
the great princes of the art, a royal master who is to be spoken of 
only with the most profound respect. He had all the great qualities ; 
he had perfect freedom and exquisite refinement ; he used the 
needle with admirable ease and grace, and his masterly force was 
restrained and tempered with a cultivated severity. ... Of 
Vandyke himself as an etcher, little more is to be said than the few 
sentences already written. His aims were few, his choice of means 
instinctively wise and right, his command of them absolute, his 
success complete." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 

Portrait of Pieter Brueghel, The Younger. 

Wibiral, No. 2. Carpenter, No. 2. Weber, p. 22. 

Fifth state, with the word Actionvm, and with the address G. H. 
removed. A picture corresponding with this print is in the collec- 
tion of the Earl of Egremont. See Smith. Cat. rats. No. ySp. 

Pieter Brueghel, the younger, called " HoUen Brueghel " (Hell 
Brueghel) from the eccentric subjects he painted, was born at 
Brussels in 1564. He was, as a painter, far inferior to his father, 
but was registered as a master at Antwerp in 1585, and died there 
in 1638. 

Portrait of Antoni Van Dyck. 

Wibiral, No. 4. Carpenter, No. 4. Weber, p. 23. 

First state, with the head alone etched and the collar indicated. 

Of the extremest rarity. 

The original picture is in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 

Portrait of Antoni Van Dyck. 

Wibiral, No. 4. Carpenter, No. 4. Weber, p. 23. 
Third state, with the address of Gillis Hendricx, but after 
the erasure of A° 1645 following the word Excudit. 

The plate was finished with the burin by Jacob Neeffs. 


Jacob Neeffs was born at Antwerp in 1630, He was probably the 
grandson of Pieter Neeffs, the painter, and distinguished himself by 
the plates he engraved after Rubens, Van Dyck and other cele- 
brated painters of the Flemish School. The date of his death is un- 

The Grisaille for this engraving was in the collection of the 
Duke of Buccleuch. 

Portrait of Frans Franck. 

Wibiral, No. 6. Carpenter, No. 6. Weber, p. 24. 

Sixth state, with the name changed from Vranx to Franck, 
and with the address G. H. erased. 

" Observe the masterly indication of the irregular moustache 
and small beard, and the flowing lines of the mantle." (P. G. 
Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," p. 109.) 

Frans Franck (or Francken) was the younger son of Frans 
Franck, the elder, and was born at Antwerp in 1581, He was a 
pupil of his father, whose style he followed for some time. Later 
he visited Italy, residing chiefly at Venice, where he studied the 
works of the great colorists of that school. 

After an absence of three years he returned to Antwerp, and 
in 1605 was received into the Guild of St. Luke, of which he was 
Dean in 1614-15. He died at Antwerp in 1642. 

Portrait of Adam van Noort. 

Wibiral, No. 8. Carpenter, No. 9. Weber, p. 28. 

Third state, before the title, but with the pillar or wall behind. 
Extremely rare. 

Adam van Noort was the son of Lambert van Noort, and was 
born at Antwerp in 1557. He was the teacher of his son-in-law 
Jordaens, and of Rubens. 

Undoubted examples of Van Noort's paintings are very rare. 
They are probably catalogued in many instances as the work of 
his pupils. He died at Antwerp in 1641. 

Portrait of Paul Pontius or du Pont. 

Wibiral, No. 9. Carpenter, No. 10. Weber, p. 29. 
Sixth state, with the word ANXUERPiiE, and after the removal 
of the address G. H. 

Paul du Pont, better known as Paul Pontius, was born at 


Antwerp in 1603. He was instructed in the art of engraving by 
Lucas Vorsterman, but improved his style under the direction of 
Rubens, from whose works he engraved numerous fine plates. He 
was not less successful in the admirable portraits he engraved after 
Van Dyck, and though he did not possess the facility of Bolswert 
or the delicacy of Vorsterman, his plates are considered as being 
among the finest productions of the Flemish school of engraving. 
He died in i6s8. 

Po74rait of Justus Suttermans. 

Wibiral, No. 12. Carpenter, No. 17. Weber, p. 32. 

Fifth state, with the name changed from Iudocus Citermans 
to lusTUS SvTTERMANS, and with the address G. H. erased. 

" There is much nobility in the well-set, intelligent head, but 
the wonder of execution in this portrait is the costume, especially 
on Suttermans' left shoulder, where the lightness of the lace collar 
contrasts with the firm and elaborate drawing of the gatherings of 
the cloth. Observe the good sketching of the right hand, and the 
way in which the finish of the left shoulder passes gradually into 
free and loose indication below the waist." (P, G. Hamerton, 
" Etching and Etchers," p. 109.) 

Justus Suttermans was born at Antwerp in 1597. He was a 
pupil of Willem de Vos, in that city, and of Frangois Porbus, the 
second, in Paris. 

He travelled through Germany to Venice, and afterwards 
went to Florence, where his abilities attracted the attention of 
Cosmo II., Grand Duke of Tuscany, who appointed him his painter 
and in whose service he remained until the death of that prince. 
Cosmo III. continued the favor and protection extended by his 
predecessor, and Suttermans remained in Florence until 1623, when 
he was summoned to Vienna to paint the portraits of the Emperor 
and Empress of Germany, and returned to Florence with a patent 
of nobility. He died in Florence in 1681. As a portrait painter 
Suttermans was little inferior to Van Dyck, who, when visiting 
Florence, expressed great admiration for the works of Suttermans. 

Portrait of Lucas Vorsterman. 

Wibiral, No. 14. Carpenter, No. 19. Weber, p. 2,Z- 
Fifth state, with the background engraved, and after the re- 
moval of the address G. H. from the margin. 


From the collection of W. B. Scott, author of " The Life of 

This plate is usually considered to be the finest of all Van 
Dyck's etched portraits. Drugulin describes a proof retouched 
in pencil, probably by Van Dyck himself, as a suggestion for some 
changes which, however, were never made, but which would cer- 
tainly, in the estimate of Drugulin, have been an improvement. 

" The execution of the portrait itself, including the drapery, 
is quite magnificent, but the background is rather unfortunate in 
its formality. . . . Whenever Van Dyck falls into anything 
like mechanism, it is sure to be in a background. ... In the 
portrait of Vorsterman the hair is very free and beautiful, and 
there are some remarkably fine darks in the drapery, especially to 
the left side." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," p. 109.) 

(See Biographical Note under Vorsterman.) 



Born in 1600 at Chamagne, near Charmes, department of 

His parents, who were very poor, apprenticed him at an early 
age to a pastry cook. When the term of his apprenticeship had 
expired, he engaged as a valet to a company of young artists, and 
with them travelled to Rome. Soon after his arrival, determined 
to become an artist, he entered the service of Agostino Tassi as 
pupil and general factotum. 

In the spring of 1625 Claude left Rome and started upon his 
travels, not returning again to that city until 1627. For the next 
ten years he would seem to have devoted himself entirely to art, 
but we hear little of him until he attracted the attention of Cardinal 
Bentivoglio, who introduced him to Pope Urban VIII. 

Henceforth his position was assured and his life ran smoothly 
until he died in 1682. 

As an etcher his plates are uneven in merit. They number 
forty-two. Good proofs are eagerly sought for and are, conse- 
quently, rare. 

" His superiority as an etcher is chiefly a technical superiority ; 
he could lay a shade more delicately, and with more perfect grada- 
tion, than any other etcher of landscape ; he could reach rare 
effects of transparency, and there is ineffable tenderness in his 


handling. These are his chief claims to our consideration, and he 
is so strong on these points that such accomplished moderns as 
Haden and Samuel Palmer have a great reverence for his name. Add 
to these qualities a certain freedom and spirit in his lines which 
serv'ed him well in near masses of foliage, and a singularly perfect 
tonality in one or two remarkable plates, and you have the ground 
of his immortality as an etcher. He was great in this sense but 
not great in range of intellectual perception, and his genius at the 
best is somewhat feminine. He has left a few unimportant and 
weak etchings, but he has also left half a dozen masterpieces which 
the severest criticism must respect. One merit of his is not com- 
mon in his modern successors — the extreme modesty of his style ; 
no etcher was ever less anxious to produce an impression of clever- 
ness and his only object seems to have been the simple rendering 
of his ideas. He sincerely loved beauty and grace and tried in- 
nocently for these till his touch became gentler than that of a 
child's fingers, yet so accomplished that the stubborn copper was 
caressed, as it were, into a willing obedience." (P. G. Hamerton, 
" Etching and Etchers," pp. 157-158.) 

Vol. I., pp. 3-38. 


La Fuite en Egypte. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. i. 
Third state. 

Le Passage du Gue. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 3. 
Second state. 

La Danse an Bord de L Ea2i. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 6. 
Second state. Rare. 


La Danse Sous les Arbres. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. lo. 
Second state. Rare. 

This plate is remarkable for the richness of the foliage and for 
the freedom with which it is etched. 

Le Pont de Bois. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 14. 
Second state. 

Le Soleil Couchant. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 15. 

Third state. Rare. 

" This etching is remarkable for the inexpressible tenderness 
of its sky. When heretics and unbelievers say that skies cannot be 
done in etching, it is always convenient to answer them with a 
reference to this plate ; but the truth is, that although the sky is 
marvellously tender, and in that respect undoubtedly the finest ever 
etched, the cloud-forms are so simple and so little defined that 
Claude's success in this instance has not solved more than one of 
the great sky-problems." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," 

p. I59-) 

"This admirable composition, the masterpiece of the artist." 
(Robert-Dumesnil, " Le Peintre Graveur Frangais," Vol. I., p. 19.) 

Le Depart pour les Champs. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 16. 
Second state. Rare. 

Le Troupeaii en March par un Temps Orageux, 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 18. 

First state (before the lines in the sky). Very rare. 

" Claude seems to have had a sensitive and delicate nature, 
more capable of enjoying the softly gradated sky of a fine after- 
noon than the grandeur of gathering storm. The sky here is curi- 
ously feeble and ineffectual, but the etching is one of Claude's 
best, and especially deserves to be studied for the piece of ruined 


temple, which is etched more firmly and substantially than any 
other piece of architecture by him." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching 
and Etchers," p. 159.) 

Berger et Beigere Conversant. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 21. 

" Not so rich in tone as some other etchings by Claude, but free 
and grand in manner. The trees to the right have a stately grace, 
and there is an extreme elegance in the tree that divides the com- 
position. There are some rolling clouds, and there is little repose 
in the unquiet lines of the foreground ; but the shepherd and 
shepherdess can have their talk without paying much heed to so 
finely artistic a consideration." (P. G. Hamerton, "Etching and 
Etchers," p. 160.) 

"A superb landscape." (Robert-Dumesnil, " Le Peintre 
Graveur Frangais," Vol. I., p. 25.) 

Les Trots Chevres. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 26. 

First state, before the margins were cleaned. 

MELLAN, CLAUDE. [French School, 1601-1688.] 

Painter and engraver. Born at Abbeville in 1601. Pupil of 
Simon Vouet. When sixteen years of age he went to Rome, and 
there studied under Villamena — at that time the most esteemed 
engraver in Italy. In Rome, Mellan acquired, before long, the 
reputation of being one of the ablest burinists of his time. 

Many of his later plates are engraved in parallel lines (con- 
trary to the usual method, where the effect is produced by crossed 
lines), thereby securing results that are clear, soft and agreeable. 

M. Perrault, in his work, " Les Hommes illustres qui ont paru 
pendant ce siecle," says that Mellan's art was such that he could 
give, in his engravings, when working from the paintings or de- 
signs of other artists, an air of life and freedom lacking in the 

Mellan died at Paris on the 9th of September, 1688, and lies 
buried in the Church of St. Germain-l'Auxerrois. 



The Virgin and Infant Jesus. 

Montaiglon, No. 12. 

Second state. Engraved from his own design. Not dated. 
The plate existed at the latter part of the last century. Impres- 
sions printed from it at that time bear the address of Bligny. 

The Holy Family. 

Montaiglon, No 13. 

Engraved in 1635 from his own design. 

Third state ; with the coat of arms of Bishop Beaumanoir, and 
the words " Cum privilegio Regis " after the engraver's name. 

The first state is before the arms ; second state with the arms, 
but before the words " Cum privilegio Regis." In the fourth state 
the arms are effaced and the place on the copper where they were 
is shaded. 

Saint Peter Nolasque Supported by Two Angels. 

Montaiglon, No. 90. 

Engraved in 1627 from his own design. Only state. 

The original plate was designed and engraved in Rome, where 
Mellan printed only a few impressions. The plate was then sent to 
Paris, by sea, but the vessel upon which it was, was wrecked and 
the plate lost. 

" One of the finest and rarest prints of the artist." (Bryan's 
" Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.") 

Hercules and Atlas. 

Not described by Montaiglon. Not dated. 
Engraved from his own design. 

DE JODE, PIETER (The Younger). [Flemish School, 1606- 

not known.] 

Born at Antwerp in 1606. 

A pupil of his father, Pieter de Jode, the elder, whom he 
surpassed in the taste and facility with which he handled the 


graver. He engraved more than three hundred plates, unequal in 
merit, the best being portraits after the paintings of Van Dyck. 
The date of his death is not known. 

Saint Francis and Saint Clara AdoriMg the 
Infant Jesus. 

Andresen, No. 3. 

From the design of Gerard Seghers. 

HOLLAR, WENCESLAUS. [German School, 1607-1677.] 

Born at Prague in 1607. 

He was of an ancient family and was educated for the law, but 
not liking that profession, and his family, at the taking of Prague 
in 1619, losing all they possessed, he became a pupil of Matthaus 
Merian at Frankfort. He travelled through Germany later, making 
sketches and engravings of the various cities he saw, and his views 
of Strasbourg, Frankfort, Cologne and Mayence are much admired. 

In 1636 he was taken into the employment of the Earl of 
Arundel, who was then Ambassador to Ferdinand H., and upon the 
return of that nobleman to England, in 1637, Hollar came with 

He engraved a number of plates of portraits and figures, but his 
labors were interrupted by the outbreak of the Civil War, in which 
he espoused the cause of the Royalists and was made a prisoner at 
Basing House in 1645. 

Upon regaining his liberty he removed to Antwerp, whither 
the Earl of Arundel had withdrawn, but upon the death of that 
patron, not finding remunerative work, he returned to England in 
1652, but though he was continually employed the low prices he 
received for his works barely supported him. Ill fortune seems to 
have followed him continuously from this time forward. The plague 
and the great fire of London put all thoughts of art out of the 
heads of the people, and though Hollar was sent, about this time, 
to Africa in the capacity of His Majesty's draughtsman, to make 
drawings of the town of Tangier and adjacent country, he was, 
upon his return, but illy paid for his labor and expenses. 

In 1672 he travelled to the north of England, making drawings 


of Lincoln, Southwell, Newark, York Minster and other places, but 
returned to London, where he died in 1677. 

We are told that his poverty, at the close of his life, was so 
great that in his last illness the only piece of furniture remaining 
when the bailiffs entered the room to take possession, was the bed 
upon which he lay. 

His engravings number 2733 ; some of them are now extremely 
rare and command large prices. 


A Woman of Strasbourg. 

Parthey, No. 1935. 
Etched in 1643. 

A Stag. 

Parthey, No. 2092. 

Etched in 1649. 

From a drawing by Albert Diirer. 



Born at Leyden, July 15, 1606. 

He was the fifth of six children, but his father, Harmen van 
Rijn, being in comfortable circumstances, determined that his son 
should have a good education. Rembrandt was, accordingly, sent 
to the College of Leyden, but left that institution before he had 
advanced very far in his studies, in order that he might follow his 
strong inclination for art. 

His first master was Jacob van Swanenburch, with whom he 
stayed for three years, and under whose instruction he made such 
good progress that in 1622, being then only fifteen years of age, he 
was placed by his father at the more famous studio of Pieter Last- 
man, in Amsterdam. Here he remained for six months, at the end 
of which time he removed to the studio of Jacob Pinas. 

In 1623 Rembrandt returned to his home at Leyden, and for 
the next seven years is supposed to have worked there steadily. 
In 1628 he received Gerard Dow as his pupil and in 1630 removed 
to Amsterdam, in which city he resided until his death. 


In Amsterdam he seems soon to have acquired a considerable 
reputation, and his famous painting, " The Lesson in Anatomy " — 
his first corporation picture — was painted in 1632. 

Two years later — on June 10, T634^Rembrandt married Saskia 
van Ulenburgh, a member of a good Friesland family and well con- 

At the time of her marriage Saskia was twenty-two years of 
age, and Rembrandt twenty-seven. 

To them were born four children, but one of whom, Titus, was 
living at the time of Saskia's death in June, 1642. Titus became, 
later, a pupil of his father, but died in March, 1669, seven months 
before the death of Rembrandt. 

In 1642 Rembrandt purchased a large house in the Breed 
Straat, probably with the money left to him by his mother, 
who had died two years previously. In this house he lived for 
many years, filling it with works of art of all kinds. This taste for 
collecting was, seemingly, one of the causes of his bankruptcy in 
July, 1656. Of the extent and variety of his collections we may 
judge from the inventory (Ch. Blanc, Vol. I, pp. 39-54), made at 
the time of his being declared insolvent. 

After the sale of his house in the Breed Straat, Rembrandt 
took one on the north side of the Rosengracht. Here he lived with 
his son Titus, until the latter married and moved to the Singel, to 
the house in which he died a few months later. 

In 1665 Rembrandt married Catharina van Wijck, by whom he 
had two children, both living at the time of his death in October, 

He was buried in the Westerkerke on October 8th, and from the 
accounts we have of the expenses of the funeral, we may conclude 
that it was an affair of some importance. 

" Every art has its great representative master, and the rep- 
resentative etcher is Rembrandt. He was so constituted, and he so 
trained himself, as to become, in his maturity, the most consummate 
aqua-fortist who had hitherto appeared. 

. . . . Another point which distinguishes Rembrandt from 
many inferior aqua-fortists, is his manly use, on due occasion, of the 
frank etched line. He knew the beauty and the value of it, and 
was so far from trying to dissimulate it in deference to popular 
taste, that he laid it boldly and bare wherever he saw the need of 
it, even in his most careful and elaborate performances. There is 
only one Englishman, Haden, who has used the line in this direct 
effectual way, and Rembrandt taught him. 

. , . . He was a robust genius, with keen powers of observa- 


tion, but little delicacy or tenderness of sentiment, and he lacked the 
feminine element which is said to be necessary to poets. He un- 
derstood certain classes of men quite thoroughly and drew them 
with the utmost perspicacity — men with whom his robust nature 
had sympathy. He had an extraordinary apprehension of natural 
dignity and majesty, proving thereby the true grandeur of his 
own mind, for it is only minds of a very high order that see the 
grandeur of men who enjoy little worldly rank and consideration. 
Rembrandt had little sensitiveness, it seems, as regards the delicate 
beauty of young women, but he understood — and this is rarer — 
the venerableness of some old ones." (P. G. Hamerton, "Etching 
and Etchers," pp. 73-76-77.) 

" Rembrandt, who was born in Holland in 1606 and died there 
in 1669, may be regarded as the great representative etcher for all 
time. He did not originate the process ; but, having found it in a 
crude and undeveloped state, he carried it to a height of perfection 
which, as a whole, has never since been equalled. 

Notwithstanding all the achievements of the modern school in 
the various details of etching, such as dry-point, management of 
the aqua-fortis, methods of printing, and so forth, it is probably 
true that every one of these refinements of the art was known and 
practiced by Rembrandt himself. He knew well how to vary 
effects by different styles of printing, was well acquainted with the 
virtues of Japanese and verge papers, and on rare occasions he 
even printed proofs on satin." (Frederick Keppel, "The Modern 
Disciples of Rembrandt.") 




pp. 73-96. 

Jan., 1894. 



Abraham Sending Away Hagar. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 3. Claussin, No. 37. 

Bartsch, No. 30. Wilson, No. 37. 

Only state. 

Dated 1637, and signed. 

All the best qualities of Rembrandt's work — beauty of ex- 
pression and composition, delicacy and richness of work, and 
masterly distribution of light and shade — are shown, to a high 
degree, in this print. 

The patriarch seems sorry, in spite of himself, to send away 
Hagar, who weeps and turns away her face. 

Sarah's joy is expressed in a few perfect lines, while the hesita- 
tion of the dog, as to whether he will remain or will follow young 
Ishmael, is of real assistance to the composition. Isaac, the cause 
of all the trouble, is to be seen in the shadow by the inner door. 

" This is one of the most perfectly delicate of all Rembrandt's 
etchings. The sureness of the faint, thin lines on which the ex- 
pression of the faces chiefly depends, the masterly reservation of 
reflections and half-lights in open shading, the opportune omission 
of labor where omission was better than toil, justify our admira- 
tion. Observe the thoroughly characteristic drawing of Sarah's 
old hands and grimly satisfied face ; the strokes are so few that 
you may count them, and so thin that it needs clear sight even to 
see them. The face of Abraham is just as good, and the beard is 
indicated with a dozen strokes towards the edge of it, the rest be- 
ing left to the imagination." (P. G. Hamerton, "Etchings and 
Etchers," pp. 82-83.) 

Joseph Relating His Dream to His Family, 

Ch. Blanc, No. 9. Claussin, No. 41. 

Bartsch, No. 37. Wilson, No. 41. 

Second state. 

Dated 1638, and signed. 

This etching was, justly, prized in Holland, even during 
Rembrandt's lifetime. To fully realize the merit of this admirable 
composition, in which thirteen figures are so well grouped in so 
small a space, one must recall the circumstances attending the rela- 
tion, by Joseph, of his dream — his brothers envious of him, but his 
father interested and impressed by Joseph's words. Note what a 
difference there is between the attitude of the father, sunk in his 
chair, and in his surprise allowing his hand to drop limply on his 


knee, and that of the brothers, all, with one exception, exhibiting- 
the same feeling in various ways. Envy and hatred fill one, 
wounded pride another, and scornful unbelief a third. 

Never, perhaps, has an etcher so fully expressed his concep- 
tion, in so satisfying a way, as Rembrandt here has done. 

The very essence of the scene is caught and retained without 
the use of one inexpressive line. 

T/ie Triumph of Mordecai. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 12. Claussin, No. 44. 

Bartsch, No. 40. Wilson, No. 44. 

Only state. 

Mordecai, attended by Haman, is being conducted in triumph 
among the people, who, mindful of the royal injunction: "Thus 
shall it be done unto the man whom the King delighteth to honour," 
exhibit various signs of respect and admiration. Queen Esther and 
King Ahasuerus are seated behind a balcony, while in the fore- 
ground the crowd, in which may be seen many types, from the 
mother with a young child, to the old man of venerable appearance, 
elbow one another, curious and eager to see and, as to-day, look- 
ing for a new sensation. 

The effect of sunlight in this composition is wonderfully fine. 

David Praying. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 13. Claussin, No. 45. 

Bartsch, No. 41. Wilson, No. 45. 

Second state. 

Dated 1652, and signed. 

Charles Blanc considers this print to be (the contrary 
opinions of Bartsch and Claussin notwithstanding) one of 
Rembrandt's best works, both in composition and lighting, be- 
ing at the same time simple in execution and grand in conception, 

David, the rich and mighty king, is here shown alone, upon 
his knees, praying and weeping in the presence of his God. What 
avail riches, power, wisdom, if God be not his friend ? 

Such is the idea expressed in this impressive little print. 


Tobit Struck JVith Blindness. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 15. Claussin, No. 46. 

Bartsch, No. 42. Wilson, No. 46. 

Only state. 

Dated 165 1, and signed. 

This is one of Rembrandt's most touching plates. The ar- 
rangement of the interior, showing a row of fish drying in the 
chimney, suggests the manner of life of Rembrandt himself, whose 
meal, Houbraken relates, was frequently composed of a little cheese 
and a small piece of smoked herring. 

The attitude and expression of Tobit are worthy of careful 
study. They are those of a man struck blind and not at all those of 
a blind man knowing his limitations. The little dog too, far from 
trying to get out of the way, as most commentators have said, is, 
on the contrary, trying to guide his master to the door, pushing 
him gently with his head in the right direction. 

"'Tobit Blind, with the Dog' is a work in which the mental 
conception, which is most pathetic, is everything, and the manual 
performance so simple, so devoid of all pretension, that it requires 
some knowledge of etching to recognize the strength of a master." 
(P. G. Hamerton, "Rembrandt's Etchings," p. 44.) 

The Annunciation to the Shepherds. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 17. Claussin, No. 48, 

Bartsch, No. 44. Wilson, No. 49. 

Fourth state. 

Dated 1634, and signed. 

Two proofs only are known in the first state. A proof in the 
second state is described as " almost unique." Of the third state a 
proof is in the Museum at Amsterdam. 

Fine proofs of this plate are very rare. They should clearly 
show the arches of the bridge, as this proof does. 

Govaert Flinck, inspired by this print, painted a picture, now 
in the Louvre, of the "Annunciation to the Shepherds." 

The Flight Into Egypt. A Night Piece. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 26. Claussin, No. 57. 

Bartsch, No. 53. Wilson, No. 58. 

Third state. 

Fine, dark proofs of this etching are rare. The later impres- 
sions are flat and do not worthily show the intention of the plate. 


The Repose in Egypt. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 30. Claussin, No. 61. 

Bartsch, No. 57. Wilson, No. 62. 

Third state. 

The first state is without the ass ; the tree and Joseph's 
cap are unshaded. In the second state the tree and Joseph's cap 
are shaded. 

In the third state the head and neck of the ass are shown to 
the right. Bartsch mentions only two states, omitting the second 
state described above. 

From the collection of Sir Edward Astley. 

The Virgin and Child in the Clouds. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 32, Claussin, No. 65. 

Bartsch, No. 61. Wilson, No. 65. 

Dated 1641, and signed. 
Only state. 

"Another sketch is that of ' The Virgin and Child in the Clouds,' 
which only proves how little the genius of Rembrandt was fitted 
to rise above the earth and its familiar realities." (P. G. Hamer- 
ton, " Rembrandt's Etchings," p. 33.) 

Jesus Christ Preaching. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 39. Claussin, No. 71. 

Bartsch, No. 67, Wilson, No. 71. 

First state. Before the plate was retouched by Pierre Norblin. 
The expression and character of the heads in this fine composi- 
tion are simply inimitable. The plate is etched with all the genius 
of a great artist and one thoroughly impregnated with the true 
spirit of the Evangelist. 

From the collection of Ambroise Firmin-Didot. 

Jesus Christ and the IVoman of Samaria. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 45. Claussin, No. 74. 

Bartsch, No. 70. Wilson, No. 74. 

Dated 1658, and signed. 
Third state. 

This plate is etched in a spirited and delightful manner. 
Rembrandt, by this time perfect master of his material, was easily 


able to select the most direct means of expressing his conceptions. 
The expressiveness of the etched line in this plate is remarkable, 
and the charm of the landscape is beautifully rendered, 

''Ecce HomoT 

Ch. Blanc, No. 52. Claussin, No. 82. 

Bartsch, No. 77. Wilson, No. 82, 

Dated 1636, and signed. 

Third state. 

This is Rembrandt's largest etching, and, judging by the 
number of studies he made for the various figures, the one to 
which he devoted the greatest amount of care. 

Each separate countenance is worthy of study, differing in 
expression, but all dominated by the same feelings of cruelty, 
mockery and brutality. 

Pilate himself, weak, vacillating, false, is in marked contrast 
to Christ, wearied and crowned with thorns, but still looking 
heavenward for strength to bear His last great agony. 

Good impressions of this etching are rarely found. 

Jesus Christ Crucified Between Two Thieves. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 54. Claussin, No. 84. 

Bartsch, No. 79. Wilson, No. 85. 

Only state. 

Christ's cross is turned a little to the right. Upon the same 
side, at a little distance, is seen the cross bearing the repentant 
thief. The other thief is seen from behind, at the left of the print. 
Upon His cross rests the spear bearing the sponge. The three 
Marys are at the foot of Christ's cross, and several other figures 
are grouped about them. 

This plate is delicately etched and with a fine point. 

Duplicate from the Cambridge University Collection. 

The Descent from the Cross. 

( The larger plate.) 
Ch. Blanc, No. 56. Claussin, No. 83. 

Bartsch, No. 81. Wilson, No. 2,;^. 

Dated 1633, and signed. 
Third state. 

In the opinion of some critics this composition ranks as one 
of the very finest renderings of this subject, in all art. 

Bartsch thinks that the Jew standing to the left of the central 


group, and leaning upon his staff, may be Joseph of Arimathea. 
This seems improbable, and we may judge him, by his attitude, to 
be, more probably, an officer appointed to superintend the re- 
moval of the dead. 

Rembrandt has also painted a picture, now in Munich, of this 
subject. The composition is the same, save in some unimportant 
details, but the light is concentrated upon the figure of the dead 
Christ, instead of illuminating also the group surrounding Him. 

The Supper at Emmaus. 

{The smaller plate.) 

Ch. Blanc, No. 62. Claussin, No. 92. 

Bartsch, No. 88. Wilson, No. 93. 

Dated 1634, and signed. 

First state ; before the added work on the leg of the table. 

Of the two plates of this subject, designed and etched by 
Rembrandt, Ch. Blanc considers this one to be the better. 

The expressions on the faces are very fine, and the blending of 
the divine, expressed by the aureole around Christ's head, and the 
domestic and familiar, shown by the dog on the lookout for an- 
other bone, is noteworthy, making us feel, as it does, that the 
religion of Christ is not for occasional but for daily use. 

Peter and John at the Gate of the Te^nple. 

Ch. Blanc, No. dd. Claussin, No. 97. 

Bartsch, No. 94. Wilson, No. 98. 

Dated 1659, and signed. 

Fourth state. 

This plate is also called " Saint Peter Curing the Paralytic at 
the Beautiful Gate of the Temple." 

The architectural effect is of a grandeur and magnificence be- 
fitting the scene of that miracle recorded in the Bible : 

" Then Peter said. Silver and gold have I none ; but such as I 
have give I thee ; In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth rise 
up and walk." 


Saint Philip Baptizing the Ethiopian. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 69. Claussin, No. loi. 

Bartsch, No. 98. Wilson, No. 103. 

Dated 1641, and signed. 

Second state. 

Though etched with few lines this plate illustrates completely 
the description of the scene, as we read it in the Bible. 

The Ethiopian, a great lord at the court of Candace, Queen of 
the Ethiopians, has just alighted from his chariot, and, at his^^urgent 
prayer, is being baptized by Saint Philip. 

Note the surprise and disdain expressed upon the face of the 
mounted soldier at witnessing a rite he does not understand. 

Saint Jerome Writing. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 74. Claussin, No. 106. 

Bartsch, No. 103. Wilson, No. 108. 

Dated 1648, and signed. 

Second state, with the name of Rembrandt and with the date 

Rembrandt doubtless did not finish the plate to its borders in 
order to concentrate the attention upon St. Jerome, who is shown, 
spectacles on nose, busily engaged in writing. 

Saint Jerome, in the Manner of Albert Diirer. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 75. Claussin, No. 107. 

Bartsch, No, 104. Wilson, No. 109. 

Second state. " Early proofs in this state still show a^good 
deal of the dry-point work." (Ch. Blanc, p. 244.) 

Rembrandt frequently treated the subject of St. Jerome, but 
never in a happier manner than in this plate. The Saint is not 
represented as the anchorite in the desert, praying to God to give 
him strength to resist temptation, but as one of the grave Doctors 
of the Church, founder of a monastery at Bethlehem, quietly seated 
and occupied in the study or translation of the Scriptures. 

The architecture and the landscape are rendered in a most in- 
teresting way, and the unfinished appearance of the foreground in 
the plate, far from detracting from the beauty of the print, adds, in 
the opinion of several authorities, to its interest. 


Medea, or the Marriage of Jason and Creusa. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 82. Claussin, No. 114. 

Bartsch, No. 112. "Wilson, No. 116. 

Dated 1648, and signed. 

Third state, before that portion of the plate bearing the verses 
was cut off. 

This composition illustrates a play entitled " Medea : A Tragedy 
in five acts and in verse, by Jan Six." The author was afterwards 
Burgomaster of Amsterdam, and Rembrandt both etched and 
painted his portrait. 

The scene represented is the interior of a temple. The statue 
of Juno is seen to the right. In front of it is an altar, by which 
stands the high priest offering up a sacrifice to the goddess. At the 
feet of the priest kneel two figures — Jason and Creusa. Medea, the 
deserted wife, is about to enter the temple. 

The plate is full of detail and is very carefully etched. 

The Game of Golf 

Ch. Blanc, No. 97. Claussin, No. 127. 

Bartsch, No. 125. Wilson, No. 129. 

Dated 1654, and signed. 

First state, before the blank spaces at the top of the plate 
were filled with new work. 

This plate is etched freely and is without much brilliancy, but 
impressions of the first state are not often to be met with. 

Portrait of a Jew JVith a Big Cap. 

Ch. Blanc, No. loi. Claussin, No. 133. 

Bartsch, No. 133. Wilson, No. 135. 

Dated 1639, and signed. 
Only state. 
This little plate is etched in a very delicate and spirited manner. 

Portrait of an Old Man, Seen from Behind. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 109. Claussin, No. 142. 

Bartsch, No. 143. Wilson, No. 143. 

Second state. 

This subject, together with five heads, was etched upon one 
plate, which was afterwards cut into five pieces. An impression 
from the uncut plate is believed to be unique. 


Beggars at the Door of a House. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 146, Claussin, No. 173, 

Bartsch, No. 176. Wilson, No. 173. 

Dated 1648, and signed. 

Second state. 

Bartsch describes one state only, but Ch. Blanc describes three. 

This is one of the best and most interesting of Rembrandt's 
etchings of beggars. One may say that all is equally perfect here ; 
the work of the needle, which is of rare delicacy, not less than the 
expressions upon the faces of the people, their attitudes and the 
play of light, which so well detaches them from one another. 

Note the art displayed by Rembrandt in leaving one side of 
the plate clear, so as to concentrate all the interest upon the group. 

Portrait of Ephrahn Bonus. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 172. Claussin, No. 275. 

Bartsch, No. 278. Wilson, No. 280. 

Dated 1647, and signed. 

Second state. 

Three proofs only are known in the first state. 

This is one of the best and most famous of Rembrandt's portrait 
etchings. Its rarity has, also, added to its money value. 

Ephraim Bonus, a Portuguese by birth, came to Amsterdam, 
where he practiced medicine, in the first half of the 17th century. 

In 165 1 he obtained the rights of citizenship. M. Scheltema, in 
his work upon Rembrandt, says that Ephraim Bonus must not be 
confounded with Joseph Bonus, who attended Prince Maurice in 
his last illness, in 1625, and suggests that Ephraim may have been 
the son of Joseph Bonus. 

There is, at Amsterdam, in the house of the present Jan Six, a 
portrait in oils, by Rembrandt, of Ephraim Bonus. The costume, 
pose and environment are precisely the same as in the etching, lead- 
ing us to think that Rembrandt may have etched this plate after 
his own painting and not direct from life. 

Portrait of Lieven van Coppenol. 

{The larger plate ^ 

Ch. Blanc, No. 175. Claussin, No. 280. 

Bartsch, No. 283. Wilson, No. 285. 

Fourth state. 
Lieven van Coppenol, a celebrated writing-master of Amster- 


dam, was one of the most intimate friends of Rembrandt, who 
twice etched and twice painted his portrait. 

Upon a proof in the Museum at Amsterdam, in the handwrit- 
ing of Coppenol, is the following inscription : 

" Lieven van Coppenol scripsit anno 1661. vEtatis suae 62." 
Also six lines of verse, which may be translated thus : 
** Here, by the hand of Rembrandt, is the portrait of Lieven 
van Coppenol, the phoenix of writing-masters of his time. His 
old hand still directs his pen with skill. He surpassed all writing- 
masters, just as a swift vessel will pass others upon the river Y." 

Portrait of Abraham Franz. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 176. Claussin, No. 270. 

Bartsch, No. 273. Wilson, No. 275. 

Seventh state. 

This portrait of Abraham Franz, an eminent collector and 
print-seller, is not one of Rembrandt's best plates. It was probably 
etched about 1661, at a time when Rembrandt was in his greatest 
financial troubles, and to show his gratitude to Franz for the 
advice and help given by him at that time. 

Portrait of Clement de Jonghe. 

Ch. Blanc, No. t8o. Claussin, No. 269. 

Bartsch, No. 272. Wilson, No. 274. 

Dated 165 1, and signed. 

Fourth state. 

Clement de Jonghe was one of the most celebrated publishers 
of prints, of his time, in Holland. Many of the best plates of the 
best etchers, such as Cornells and Jan Visscher, Rogman, Zeeman 
and Paul Potter, bear his name as publisher. 

The beauty of effect and felicity of pose are very remarkable. 
Rembrandt has, by his art, given to the portrait of this unpretend- 
ing print-seller an air of melancholy and reverie that would not 
ill become a philosopher in meditation. 

Portrait of Jan Lut^na. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 182. Claussin, No. 273. 

Bartsch, No. 276. Wilson, No. 278. 

Dated 1656, and signed. 
Second state. 

Jan Lutma was a famous goldsmith of Groningen, but of ac- 
curate information concerning his life there is little. 


This portrait, one of Rembrandt's finest, is a most powerful 
and characteristic study, both of face and figure, while the render- 
ing of the nature of the various materials and textures is not less 
wonderful than the portraiture. 

Portrait of Jan Six. 

Ch. Blanc, No, 184. Claussin, No. 282. 

Bartsch, No. 285. Wilson, No. 287. 

Dated 1647, and signed. 

Third state. 

Jan Six, born in 1618, belonged to one of the oldest families in 
Holland. In his youth he showed considerable taste for Latin and 
for the literature of his native land. Although, in his lifetime, he 
was valued as an author, the only one of his works that is re- 
membered is the tragedy of " Medea." This, too, like all his other 
writings, would, most probably, have been entirely forgotten had it 
not been for the etching by Rembrandt of " The Marriage of Jason 
and Creusa" illustrating it. 

In 1655, the same year in which "Medea" was played for the 
first time, Six married Margaret Tulp, daughter of Nicolas Tulp, 
Burgomaster of the City of Amsterdam, a distinguished doctor 
and professor of anatomy. The portrait of Dr. Tulp may be seen, 
as the central figure, in Rembrandt's painting of " The Lesson in 

It was, probably, in the house of Nicolas Tulp that Rembrandt 
first met Jan Six, whom he was to immortalize by this etching. 

In 1691 Six was elected Burgomaster of Amsterdam, and died 
in 1700. His descendants still occupy the same house in which he 
lived, and the interior is preserved much as it must have been in 
the lifetime of Rembrandt. 

"The portrait of Jan Six is unquestionably Rembrandt's 
masterpiece in the way of highly-finished shading, and was evident- 
ly executed with the intention of carrying his art, for once, as far 
as was possible for him in that special direction. For a hand like 
his, accustomed to the utmost freedom, such success in patient 
labour may appear surprising, but it has an exact parallel in the 
high finish of some of Rembrandt's paintings. The interest of the 
plate is, however, by no means limited to its technical excellence. 
It is charming, and was in its own day, also, a new and original 
presentation of a cultivated gentleman in the privacy of his own 
room. Tranquillity and sobriety in everything are here the domi- 


nant notes. The subject appears quite unaware that he is watched, 
and reads, as he thinks, in solitude, near his window, and so it is 
one of the most unaffected of portraits." (P. G. Hamerton, 
" Rembrandt's Etchings," pp. 41-42.) 

Portrait of Jan Cornells Sylvius. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 186. Claussin, No. 263. 

Bartsch, No. 266. Wilson, No. 268. 

Dated 1633, and signed. 

Second state. 

Jan Cornells Sylvius was a cousin by marriage of Saskia 
Uylenburg, first wife of Rembrandt. He was minister at Sloten, 
near Leuwarden in Friesland, and it probably was there that he 
met and married Aeltje Uylenburg, a niece of Rombertus Uylenburg, 
and consequently cousin to Saskia. 

It was Jan Sylvius, seemingly, who arranged the marriage 
between Rembrandt and Saskia, at least his name appears, in an 
act, as giving consent, probably in his capacity of guardian. 

" There are uncertainties and disappointments in etching, even 
for the most experienced masters, and one of the worst plates that 
Rembrandt ever made, if, indeed, he did entirely execute it with 
his own hand, is the portrait of Jan Sylvius, which is not to be 
confounded with the fine later portrait of Sylvius preaching, 
executed four years later. The first Sylvius does not show Rem- 
brandt's usual skill in drawing (look at the right nostril and the 
wooden hands), whilst the shading is heavy and of poor quality, be- 
ing without any effectual varieties of tone, texture, and handling." 
(P. G. Hamerton, *' Rembrandt's Etchings," p. 21.) 

Portrait of Jan Uytenbogaert. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 190. Claussin, No. 276. 

Bartsch, No. 279. Wilson, No. 281, 

Dated 1635, and signed. 

Fourth state. 

Bartsch describes two states only of this plate. 

From the collection of Carl Schloesser. 

Jan Uytenbogaert, born in Utrecht in 1557, was a man of 
profound learning and noble character. He played an important 
part, both in deed and in word, in the religious controversies that 
shook Holland in the 17th century. In 1580, filled with the spirit 
of the Reformation, he went to Geneva, not returning to Utrecht 
until four years later. In 1599, at the siege of Bommel, he went to 


preach in the camp of Prince Maurice, and this prince was so 
pleased with Uytenbogaert's predictions, that he retained him as 
Chaplain to the army. 

For fifteen years Uytenbogaert followed the fortunes of the 
Prince of Orange in all his campaigns, but religious differences 
separated them in 1609. 

In the following year Uytenbogaert was sent on an Embassy 
from the States General of Holland to France, where he was re- 
ceived with marks of peculiar favor by King Henry IV. 

Upon the death of Prince Maurice in 1625, Uytenbogaert re- 
turned to Holland, settling at the Hague, where he continued to 
preach until his death in 1644. 

This portrait, therefore, shows him at the age of 78 and 
proves that Rembrandt was, even then, acquainted with some of 
the greatest men of his time. 

The four Latin verses etched in the lower margin of the plate 
were composed by Hugo Grotius, whose monogram, composed of 
the letters H. G., crossing one another, is etched to the right of the 

"The well-known portrait of Johannes Uijtenbogaerd is a 
realisation of that complete scale of lights and darks which Rem- 
brandt had for some time, in an intermittent way, been aiming at. 
It is very fortunate that the desire for depth and richness did not 
lead, in this instance, to any overshading of the face which is deli- 
cately and most observantly drawn." (P. G. Hamerton, "Rem- 
brandt's Etchings," p. 25.) 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Mother. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 195. Claussin, No. 339. 

Bartsch, No. 349. Wilson, No. 344. 

Dated 1631, and signed. 
Only state. 
Duplicate from the Cambridge University Collection. 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Mother, With a Black 


Ch. Blanc, No. 196. Claussin, No. 2>7iZ' 

Bartsch, No. 343. Wilson, No. 339. 

Third state. 

Bartsch describes two states only. 

Duplicate from the Royal Museum, Berlin. 

From the collection of Karl Ferd: Frederich von Nagler. 


Portrait of Rembrandt, IVith a Moustache and a 

Small Beard. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 206. Claussin, No. 2. 

Bartsch, No. 2. Wilson, No. 2. 

Only state. 

From the collection of W. Keller. 

This beautiful little plate, though evidently etched when 
Rembrandt was a young man, is one of his finest portraits, both in 
method and in delicacy of workmanship. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, With a Soft Cap. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 224. Claussin, No. 28. 

Bartsch, No. 319. Wilson, No. 28. 

Fourth state. 

This portrait is etched with delicacy and feeling, and of all the 
portraits of this class is the best likeness 6f Rembrandt. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, With a Fur Cap and a 

White Cloak. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 226, Claussin, No. 24. 

Bartsch, No. 24. Wilson, No. 24. 

Dated 1630, and signed. 
Fourth state. 

Duplicate from the Royal Museum, Berlin. 
From the collections of Graf von Lepell. 

E. F. Oppermann. 
Karl Ferd: Frederich von Nagler. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, With a Pur Cap and a 

White Cloak. 

Copy in reverse. 


Portrait of Rembrandt, With a Plumed Cap. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 233. Claussin, No. 20. 

Bartsch, No. 20. Wilson, No. 20. 

Dated 1638, and signed. 
First state. 
From the collections of Ambroise Firmin-Didot. 

F. Debois. 
It would be hard to carry the art of expressing the texture and 
appearance of varied stuffs, silk, velvet, fur, feathers, embroidery 
and linen, to a higher perfection in etching, than Rembrandt has 
here done. Notwithstanding the brilliancy of the garments, how- 
ever, the portrait itself holds its own. 

Four Sketches and a Portrait of Rembrandt. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 237. Claussin, No. 353. 

Bartsch, No. 363. Wilson, No. 357. 

Second state. 

These sketches are full of knowledge. The portrait of Rem- 
brandt, notwithstanding the fact that the nose is swollen and the 
expression that of a bandit in meditation, is full of energy and 
power of drawing. 

La Mauresse Blanche. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 241. Claussin, No. 35 t. 

Bartsch, No. 357. Wilson, No. 347. 

Second state. 

This plate is an interesting example of the suggestiveness of 
Rembrandt's simpler etchings. Though the face is unshaded and 
its color is represented by white paper only, the nose, lips and hair 
represent the African type of face unmistakably. 

Heads of Three Women, One of Whom is Asleep. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 251. Claussin, No. 358. 

Bartsch, No. 368. Wilson, No. 362. 

Dated 1637, and signed. 
Only state. 

This plate is etched with all the spirit of Rembrandt's best 
manner and is considered one of his best and most beautiful plates. 
Impressions of it are rare. 


Portrait of a Young Man Seated, Reflecting. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 258, Claussin, No. 265. 

Bartsch, No. 268. Wilson, No. 270. 

Dated 1637, and signed. 

First state. 

This is one of Rembrandt's most striking portraits, as it is also 
one of his best. 

Rare, indeed, is it to see a student sunk in so deep a reverie. 
This young man seems, at an early age, to have arrived at a sense 
of the vanity of human desires and his dreamy melancholy is most 

Portrait of an Old Man, With a Square Beard. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 269. Claussin, No. 309. 

Bartsch, No. 313. Wilson, No. 314. 

Dated 1637, and signed. 
Only state. 

Duplicate from the Royal Museum, Berlin. 

It seems possible that this beautifully finished portrait may be 
a study for the splendid painting, now in the Museum at Munich, 
which represents a rich, old Jew, seated upon a couch. 

Portrait of a Bald, Old Man, JVith a Fringe of 

Grey Hair. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 274. Claussin, No. 291. 

Bartsch, No. 294. Wilson, No. 295. 

Dated 1630, and signed. 
Only state. 

Wilson describes a " first state " before the monogram or the 
date, but Ch. Blanc thinks it probable that the signature was erased 
and re-etched, this so-called first state being an intermediate proof. 

Landscape, With a Man Sketching. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 320. Claussin, No. 216. 

Bartsch, No. 219. Wilson, No. 216. 

Only state. 

Landscape, With a Thatched Cottage and a Big 


Ch. Blanc, No. 326, Claussin, No. 223. 

Bartsch, No. 226. Wilson, No. 223. 

Dated 1641, and signed. , 
Only state. 

The very soul of Dutch landscape is here expressed ; a country 
flat, as far as the eye can reach, with nothing to break the line of 
the horizon but a windmill or church tower. All is quiet, pensive, 
a trifle sad. 

Landscape, IVith a Thatched Cottage and a Hay- 

Ch. Blanc, No. 327. Claussin, No. 222. 

Bartsch, No. 225. Wilson, No. 222. 

Dated 1641, and signed. 
Only state. 

One of Rembrandt's most perfect landscape plates, etched with 
great care and delicacy. The quiet melancholy of such a scene is 
caught and expressed with wonderful power. 
Impressions from this plate are rare. 

Landscape, JVith Thatched Cottages, Near a Canal. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 329. Claussin, No. 225. 

Bartsch, No. 228. Wilson, No. 225. 

Only state. 

This etching is called ''The Sailboat " by Bartsch and Claus- 
sin, but as the most prominent object in the plate is the group of 
thatched cottages, the title given to it by Ch, Blanc seems to be 
the more fitting one. 

This plate is etched in so delicate a manner and is so lightly 
bitten that the proofs are always pale. 

The Mill. 

Ch. Blanc, No. 333. Claussin, No. 230. 

Bartsch, No. 233. Wilson, No. 230. 

Dated 1641, and signed. 
Only state. 

In six interesting pages (pp. 334-339) of his catalogue, 
" L'CEuvre Complet de Rembrandt," Ch. Blanc clearly shows that 


this plate has no real claim to the title of " Rembrandt's Mill " it 
has so long borne. 

The house and mill of Herman van Rijn were situated within 
the city of Leyden, close to the ramparts, by the White Gate, 
whereas this mill was, until comparatively recently, standing in the 
village of Koukerke. 

DELLA BELLA, STEFANO. [Italian School, 1610-1664.] 

Born at Florence in 16 10. 

Pupil, in painting, of Cesare Dandini, and in engraving of 
Canta Gallina, who was also the teacher of Callot. 

Delia Bella's first plates are in the manner of Callot, but later 
he adopted a style of his own, spirited and picturesque. 

He visited Paris in 1640, where he engraved some plates for 
Henriet, the uncle of Israel Silvestre. Cardinal Richelieu employed 
him to make drawings of the siege and taking of the towns of 
Arras and La Rochelle ; afterwards he engraved these subjects. 

Upon his return to Florence, about 1650, he was appointed by 
the Grand Duke instructor in drawing to his son Cosmo, 

Delia Bella died at Florence in 1664. 


Two Horsemen. 

Andresen, No. 14. 

From a series of eleven plates representing negroes, Hun- 
garians, Asians and Africans on horseback. 

The Great Death on Horseback. 

Andresen, No. 10. 

This impression has been trimmed about three-quarters of an 
inch at the top. 

SUYDERHOEF, JONAS. [Dutch School, 1613-1669.] 

Born in Leyden in 1613. 

He studied engraving under Cornells Visscher and Pieter 
Soutman, and engraved a number of excellent plates after Ru- 
bens, Van Dyck, Van Ostade, and others. 

He died in 1669. 



Peasants in an Arbor, in Front of a Tavern. 
(Called *' The Big Broom!' ) 

Wussin, No. 124. 

From the painting by Adrian van Ostade. 

Second state, before the address and with only the names of 
the artists. 

The rare first state is before the artist's names. The third 
state has the address of C. de Jonghe. The fourth state has Leon 
ScHENK ExcuDiT, to the left below. 

The picture was sold in the collection of Braamcamp in 1771, 
and in the sale of Walsh Porter in 1810. Smith. Cat. rais. 36. 

School, 1617-1650.] 

Born at Lucca in 1617. 

He was first a pupil of Pietro Paolini and later, in Rome, 
studied with Domenichino and under Pietro da Cortona. Having 
spoken disrespectfully of this latter master. Testa was dismissed 
from his school. 

Testa was drowned in the Tiber in 1650. 

There are 39 plates by him. In the majority of them the im- 
agination displayed is better in quality than is the drawing, which 
is often faulty. 

ADAM BARTSCH, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. XX., pp. 213-229. 

The Adoration of the Magi. 

Bartsch, No. 3. 

Engraved from the artist's own design. 

WATERLOO, ANTONL [Dutch School, 1618-1679. (?)] 

Very little is known of the life of Antoni Waterloo. He is be- 
lieved to have been born about 1618 near Utrecht or Amsterdam, 
to have led an intemperate life, and to have died poor in the hos- 
pital of St. Job, at Utrecht, between the years 1660 and 1679. 

Though paintings by Waterloo are highly prized, his greatest 
claim to consideration is as an etcher. He executed 136 plates of 


landscape subjects after his own designs from nature. They are 
etched with great spirit and freedom, in a masterly manner, and 
are usually retouched with the graver to harmonize the lights and 
strengthen the shadows. 


" Waterloo had a great liking for sylvan scenery, which he 
represented as well as any landscape-etcher of his time, but without 
either the tenderness of Claude, the grandeur of Salvator, or the 
accurate knowledge of the moderns." (P. G. Hamerton, *' Etch- 
ing and Etchers," p. 113.) 

Two Travellers Resting in a Wood. 

Bartsch, No. 123. 

Mercury and Argus. 

Bartsch, No. 127. 

One of a set of six landscapes, with mythological figures. 

SWANEVELT, HERMAN VAN. [Dutch School, 1620-1690.] 

Born at Woerden in 1620. He is said to have, first, studied 
with Gerard Dow and, later, to have gone to Rome and become, in 
1640, a pupil of Claude Lorraine. 

His retired mode of life, constant application and numberless 
studies that he made from nature, earned him the name of " The 

The larger portion of his life was spent in Rome, in which city 
he died in 1690. 

He etched 116 plates of landscape subjects. They are very 
delicate in execution and the tree forms are especially well rendered 

ADAM BARTSCH, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. II., pp. 249-326. 

The Two Cavaliers, 

Bartsch, No. 79. 

The Lady With the Pai^asol. 

Bartsch, No. 85. 


VISSCHER, CORNELIS. [Dutch School \ ^^/°~'^j\ i 
' ■- ( 1029-1670.J J 

Born at Amsterdam or Haarlem in 1620 or 1629. He was a 
pupil of Pieter Soutman but adopted a manner of his own, which 
has never been, technically, surpassed. 

He engraved many plates from his own designs and his por- 
traits are especially good. 

He died between the years 1658 and 1670. 


NAGLER, " KUNSTLER-LEXICON," XX., p. 383, et seq. 


Tke Rat Catcher. 

Nagler, No. 146. Hecquet, No. 16. W. Smith, No. 43. 
Engraved by Visscher from his own design. 
Second state, before the inscription and before the names of 
the engraver or publisher in the margin beneath. 
Impressions in this state are extremely rare. 

Portrait of Gellius de Bouma. 

Nagler, No. 4. Hecquet, No. 4. W. Smith, No. 89. 

Engraved by Visscher from his own drawing from life. 

A portion of the lower margin, bearing more of the inscrip- 
tion, has been cut off. This impression is not earlier than the third 

''Contemporary with Rembrandt was Cornelius Visscher, also 
designer and engraver, whose portraits were unsurpassed in bold- 
ness and picturesque effect. At least one authority has accorded 
to this artist the palm of engraving, hailing him as Corypheus of 
the art. Among his successful portraits is that of a cat ; but all 
yield to what are known as the Great Beards, being the portraits 
of William de Ryck, an ophthalmist at Amsterdam, and of Gellius 
de Bouma, the Zutphen ecclesiastic. The latter is especially 
famous. In harmony with the beard is the heavy face, seventy- 
seven years old, showing the fulness of long-continued potation, 
and hands like the face, original and powerful, if not beautiful." 
(Charles Sumner, "The Best Portraits in Engraving," pp. 9-10.) 


Saint Matthew. 

Saint Mark. 

Saint Lttke. 

Saint John. 

Engraved by Visscher in 1650 from his own designs. 

These four impressions were in the collection of Pierre 
Mariette, and bear his autograph, with the date 1670, upon the 
back of each print. 

An Old IVoman, IVith a Boy, by Candlelight. 

Engraved after the original plate ascribed to Peter Paul 
Rubens. In the original the figures face towards the left. 

BERGHEM, NICHOLAS. [Dutch School, 1624-1683.] 

Born in Haarlem in 1624, 

Pupil of his father, Pieter Klaasze, an inferior painter, and 
also of Jan van Goyen, Nicholas Mootjaert, Pieter Grebber and Jan 

The circumstance by which he acquired the name of Berghem 
is thus recorded by Charles de Moor. 

He reports that young Nicholas, while a pupil of Van Goyen, 
was, one day, pursued by his father to the house of that master, but 
that Van Goyen seeing that the father was about to chastise 
Nicholas, stopped the father and called out to his other scholars 
Berg hem, which signifies hide him. By this nickname the artist was 
known throughout his lifetime and his paintings and etchings are 
signed with it. 

Berghem deserved and obtained, in due season, a great repu- 
tation and his works brought large prices. He was very indus- 
trious and besides his many paintings executed 53 etchings of 

He died upon the 18th of February, 1683. 

ADAM BARTSCH, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. V., pp. 247-283. 

" The great industry of Berghem and his accurate knowledge 
of cattle gave him a certain firmness and precision with the point 
which are amongst the chief reasons for his reputation as an etcher. 


Berghem had a kind of elegance often rather out of place in 
the subjects he chose, and his shepherds and shepherdesses attitu- 
dinise with airs and graces that belong rather to the rustics of 
Florian than to those of the actual world. His shadows were ex- 
ceedingly transparent, and his reflections bright ; he had the habit 
of using emphasis well (with a view to the kind of result he aimed 
at) and he had absolute manual skill. But I cannot consider him 
a great etcher." (P. G. Hamerton, "Etching and Etchers," p. loi.) 

Two Goats. 

Bartsch, No. 37. 

A Young Goat Stretching Himself. 

Bartsch, No. 38. 

NANTEUIL, ROBERT. [French School, 1630-1678.] 

Born at Rheims about 1630. 

He was the son of a merchant, who gave him a classical edu- 
cation, but showing a strong inclination for art he decided to fol- 
low it as a profession. 

His first master in engraving was his brother-in-law, Nicolas 
Regnesson, but in 1647 Nanteuil went to Paris where he received 
farther instruction from Philippe de Champaigne and Abraham 
Bosse. He acquired considerable reputation as a maker of por- 
traits in crayons, and his talent in that direction recommended him 
to the protection of Louis XIV., whose portrait he painted and en- 
graved, and with so much success that he was after this appointed 
designer and engraver to the Royal cabinet, with a pension. 

Nanteuil died at Paris in 1678, having engraved no fewer than 
280 plates, nearly all portraits and mostly from his own drawings 
from life. 

His portraits illustrate the reign of Louis XIV., and in clear- 
ness and beauty have never been surpassed. 

Vol. IV., pp. 35-189. 

Longueil, Rene de. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 166. 

Third state (of five) with the date 1661. 


DUJARDIN, KAREL. [Dutch School, 1635-1678.] 

The most famous pupil of Nicholas Berghem. 

Born at Amsterdam in 1635. He removed, at an early age, to 
Rome and there acquired both fame and fortune, but seems to have 
spent his money freely. He returned to his native land by way of 
Lyons, in which city he met and married an heiress considerably 
older than himself. This marriage enabled him to pay the debts 
he had incurred in Rome, to which city he soon afterwards returned, 
deserting his wife. 

He, later, removed to Venice, where he died in 1678. 

His etchings number 52 plates and were executed between 
1652 and 1660. It is worthy of note that his earliest plates, etched 
when he was but seventeen years of age, are not inferior to his 
latest work. 

ADAM BARTSCH, "LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. I., pp. 161-196. 

"He is inferior in skill and knowledge to Paul Potter, but 
nearly of the same rank in point of artistic conception and imagi- 
nation, and quite free from the misplaced elegance which often 
spoiled the work of Berghem. He was not a good etcher because 
he could not sketch well. His stiff, precise lines are not to be 
recommended for imitation, and his ignorance of landscape was 
complete. His merits are a certain knowledge of animals, ex- 
pressed with a perfect sincerity, and a dexterity sufficient for his 
purpose." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 102-103.) 

The Peasant. 

Bartsch, No. 27. 

RUYSDAEL, JACOB. [Dutch School, 1635-1681.] 

Born in Haarlem about 1635. He was educated as a physician 
and surgeon and acquired considerable reputation in the practice 
of his profession ; but his inclination towards art was too strong to 
be resisted. The works of Nicholas Berghem first excited Ruys- 
dael's admiration, and though we do not certainly know if he be- 
came a pupil of Berghem we do know that he went to Amsterdam 
and that they were friends. 

Ruysdael returned, later, to Haarlem, where he died in i68i. 
He etched seven plates only, but these show the swiftness and 
lightness of hand of the artist. 

ADAM BARTSCH, " LE PEINTRE GRAVEUR," Vol. I., pp. 309-319. 

" I say nothing of his pictures, which are out of my present 


subject . . . but of Ruysdael, as an etcher, I say simply that 
he is somewhere down in the fifth or sixth rank. It is intelligible 
that when work like that of Ruysdael is held up as the work of a 
great master, the majority of the public, not having time to investi- 
gate the matter for themselves, conclude that the whole art of 
etching is imperfect." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," 

p. 112.) 

T/ie Thatched Cottage on the Hill. 

Bartsch, No. 3. 

VISSCHER, JAN. [Dutch School, 1636-1693. (?)] 

Born in Amsterdam in 1636. 

The younger brother of Cornells Visscher. Although Jan did 
not possess the genius of his brother, his plates are admirably exe- 
cuted, and are, as a rule, finely finished. He engraved a number 
of plates after Berghem, Wouverman, Van Goyen and Van Ostade, 
and also several portraits. 

The exact date of his death is not known, but it was after 1692. 

The Dance Outside the htn. 

Second state. 

From the painting by Adrian van Ostade. 

MASSON, ANTOINE. [French School, 1636-1700.] 

Born at Louvry, near Orleans, in 1636. 

He was brought up to the business of an armourer and first 
exercised the burin in engraving ornaments on steel. Early in his 
life he settled in Paris, where he applied himself, with great dili- 
gence, to drawing, and acquired some celebrity also as a portrait 
painter. In his case, as in that of Nanteuil, his powers as a painter 
greatly assisted him in his engraved works, some of which were 
from his own paintings. 

He is, however, chiefly remembered as an engraver, and in some 
of his plates, particularly his portraits, he reached an excellence 
which has seldom been surpassed. He worked entirely with the 
graver, which he handled with surprising firmness and facility, and 
at the same time with surprising delicacy. 


In 1679 he became a member of the Academy in Paris, and died 
in that city in 1700. 

His engravings number sixty-eight plates, of which sixty-two 
are portraits. 

Vol. II., pp. 98-139. 

'' Among French masters Antoine Masson is conspicuous for 
brilliant hardihood of style, which, though failing in taste, is pow- 
erful in effect. Metal, armor, velvet, feathers, seem as if painted. 
He is also most successful in the treatment of hair. His immense 
skill made him welcome difficulties, as if to show his ability in over- 
coming them." (Charles Sumner, " The Best Portraits in Engrav- 
ing," p. 14.) 

Portrait of Einmanuel- Theodose de ta Tour d' Au- 
vergne, due d' Albret, Cardinal de Bouillon. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 14. 

From the painting by Nicolas Mignard. 

Second state, with the inscription changed from " Sereniss. 
Prin. Emanuel Theodosius," &c. 

Engraved in 1665. 

The personage portrayed was a nephew of the celebrated 

EDELINCK, GERARD. [French School, 1640-1707.] 

Born at Antwerp 1640. 

He was instructed in engraving by Cornells Galle, the younger, 
but in 1666 went to Paris, where he entered the studio of Frangois 
de Poilly, and was, later, taken into the service of Louis XIV., who 
settled a pension upon him, with apartments in the Gobelins. In 
1675 he received letters of naturalization, and in 1677 he was re- 
ceived into the Academy, and was soon afterwards knighted by the 

His style is more delicate than that of Scheltius a Bolswert or 
Paul Pontius, though not less picturesque than theirs, and his ex- 
ecution is, at the same time, both bold and finished, though dis- 
playing nothing of labor or littleness. 


He engraved 339 plates, of which 200 were portraits, and, in 
many instances, improved upon the original paintings he translated. 
He died at Paris in 1707. 

pp. 169-336. 

" Younger than Nanteuil by ten years, Gerard Edelinck excelled 
him in genuine mastery. Born at Antwerp, he became French by 
adoption, occupying apartments in the Gobelins, and enjoying a 
pension from Louis XIV. Longhi says that he is the engraver 
whose works, not only according to his own judgment, but that of 
the most intelligent, deserve the first place among exemplars, and 
he attributes to him all perfections in highest degree, design, 
chiaro-oscuro, aerial perspective, local tints, softness, lightness, 
variety, in short everything which can enter into the most exact 
representation of the true and beautiful, without the aid of color. 
Others may have surpassed him in particular things, but, accord- 
ing to the Italian teacher, he remains by common consent 'the 
prince of engraving.' Another critic calls him ' king.' 

It requires no remarkable knowledge to recognize his great 
merits. Evidently he is a master, exercising sway with absolute 
art, and without attempts to bribe the eye by special effects of 
light, as on metal or satin." (Charles Sumner, " The Best Portraits 
in Engraving," p. 19.) 

Saint Basil and Saint Gregory. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 25. 
Only state. 

From a design by Jean Baptiste de Champaigne, a nephew and 
pupil of Philippe de Champaigne. 

Portrait of Philippe de Champaigne. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 164. 

First state, before the perpendicular slip of the graver near the 
trunk of the tree, back of the person. 

The original painting, by Philippe de Champaigne, is in the 
Gallery of the Louvre. Villot, No. 89 ; Waagen. Handbook II., 
p. 300. 

The copper plate is in the Chalcografie du Louvre, Paris. 

This engraving is usually considered Edelinck's masterpiece 


and one of the four greatest engraved portraits in the history of 
the art. Of it Longhi says, in his book, " La Calcografia," p. 176 : 
" The work which goes the most to my blood, and with regard 
to which Edelinck, with good reason, congratulated himself, is the 
portrait of Champaigne. I shall die before I cease to contemplate 
it with wonder always new. Here is seen how he was equally great 
as designer and engraver." 

Portrait of Jules Hardouin Mansard. 

Robert-Dumesnil, No. 268. 

Third state, with the address of Bligny. 

After the painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud. 

DREVET, PIERRE. [French School, 1663-1738.] 

Born at Lyons, July 20, 1663. 

Pupil of Germain Audran, and later, in Paris, of Gerard 

In 1696 he was appointed Engraver to the King, probably in 
recognition of his beautiful half-length portrait of Louis XIV., 
after Rigaud, engraved in 1695 ; and in 1707 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Academy. 

In 17 12 he engraved his masterpiece : the full-length portrait 
of Louis XIV., after Rigaud, but from this time onward until his 
death, on August 9, 1738, he engraved but eight more portraits. 
It seems probable that he was content to have his own glory out- 
shone by the greater glory of his only son — Pierre Imbert Drevet. 


Portrait of Jean Paul Bignon. 

Firmin-Didot, No. 22. 

Third state, with the words, ** Decan. S. Germ.," in the inscrip- 
tion in the oval. Rare. 

From the painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud. 

Portrait of Madame Marie de Laubespine. 

Firmin-Didot, No. 81. 

Second state, with the full address of Drevet. 
From the painting by nic. de Largilliere. Madame de Laubes- 
pine was the wife of Nicolas Lambert, Seigneur de Thorigny. 

PICART, BERNARD. [French School, 1673-1733.] 

Born at Paris in 1673. 

He was a pupil of his father, Etienne Picart, but later, in 
painting, of Le Brun and Jouvenet, and in engraving, of Sebastien 
Le Clerc. 

At the age of sixteen he gained honors at the Academy of 
Paris. He distinguished himself both as a designer and as an en- 
graver and executed a great number of plates. 

In 1 7 10 he left Paris and settled at Amsterdam, where he died 
in 1733. 

The Annunciation. 

After Guido Reni. 

CHEREAU, FRANCOIS. [French School, 1680-1729.] 

Born at Blois in 1680. 

Pupil of Gerard Audran and of Pierre Drevet. He distin- 
guished himself by the beauty of his touch and the correctness of 
his drawing, particularly in his portraits, some of which are ad- 
mirable, and showed himself a worthy pupil of his two great 

He died in Paris in 1729. 

Portrait of Eusebitis Renaudot. 

From the painting by I. Ranc. 

Renaudot was a member of the Academy of France. He died 
on September ist, 1720, aged 74 years. 

School, 1697-1768.J 

Born at Venice in 1697. 

Pupil of his father, Bernardo Canale. For some years Antonio 
was a scene painter in a theatre, but having more exalted ideas 
upon the subject of art, visited Rome and passed some time in 
drawing the grand remains of antiquity in the metropolis and its 
vicinity. He then returned to Venice and, in the views of that 


city, found subjects for some of his most interesting and pictur- 
esque works. 

He died in 1768. 

" Canaletto's work is clear, and simple, and honest ; but it has 
very little freedom, a moderate appreciation of beauty, no grace, 
and no imagination. He saw that Venice was picturesque, and in 
him the modern enjoyment of architecture, as a pictorial subject, 
found its first adequate expression ; but we have better architect- 
ural painters in these days ; and though good etchers are always 
very rare, we have one or two men who etch better than Canaletto. 
The word which best characterises him is respectable mediocrity, 
but it is mediocrity still, however respectable." (P. G. Hamerton, 
"Etching and Etchers," p. in.) 

View of Pietra Delia Valle. 
A View of Venice. 

From a series of 31 views of Venice and the Lagoons, entitled, 
" Vedute altre prese da i luoghi ideale de Antonio Canal e da esso in- 

DREVET, PIERRE IMBERT. [French School, 1697-1739.] 

Born in Paris, June 22, 1697. Son and pupil of Pierre Drevet. 
At a very early age he distinguished himself as an engraver, and 
in 1723 engraved his masterpiece — the portrait of Bossuet. The 
next year he became a member of the Academy, and on April 21, 
1729, was appointed Engraver to the King. About this time Drevet 
became insane, and though he seems to have had lucid intervals — 
in one of. which he engraved his last portrait, that of Rene 
Pucelle, after Rigaud — he engraved little more until the day of his 
death, April 27, 1739. 


" As Edelinck passed from the scene, the family of Drevet ap- 
peared, especially the son, Pierre Imbert Drevet, born in 1697, who 
developed a rare excellence, improving even upon the technics of 
his predecessor, and gilding his refined gold. The son was born 
engraver, for at the age of thirteen he produced an engraving of 
exceeding merit. He manifested a singular skill in rendering dif- 
ferent substances, like Masson, by the effect of light, and at the 


same time gave to flesh a softness and transparency which remain 
unsurpassed. To these he added great richness in picturing cos- 
tumes and drapery, especially in lace. 

He was eminently a portrait engraver, which I must insist is 
the highest form of the art, as the human face is the most im- 
portant object for its exercise. Less clear and simple than Nan- 
teuil, and less severe than Edelinck, he gave to the face indi- 
viduality of character, and made his works conspicuous in art. If 
there was excess in the accessories, it was before the age of Sartor 
Resartus, and he only followed the prevailing style in the popular 
paintings of Hyacinthe Rigaud. Art in all its forms had become 
florid, if not meretricious, and Drevet was a representative of his 
age." (Charles Sumner, "The Best Portraits in Engraving," p. 21.) 

Portrait of Samuel Bernard. 

Firmin-Didot, No. 11. 

Third state, with the words, " Conseiller d'Estat." 
The original painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud was, in 1876, in the 
possession of M. le comte Forestier de Coubert. 

Portrait of Jacques- Benigne Bossuet. 

Firmin-Didot, No. 12. 

Ninth state, witli five dots after the word ^^J>inxit." 

After the painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud. 

The original picture is in the gallery of the Louvre. Villot, 
No. 477. 

The painting was commenced in 1699, but the head only was 
finished, the entire picture not being completed until 1705, after 
the death of Bossuet. 

One of the four greatest portraits in line engraving. 

" The portrait of Bossuet has everything to attract and charm. 
There stands the powerful defender of the Catholic Church, master 
of French style, the most renowned pulpit orator of France, in epis- 
copal robes, with abundant lace, which is the perpetual envy of the 
fair who look at this transcendent effort. The ermine of Dubois is 
exquisite, but the general effect of this portrait does not compare 
with the Bossuet." (Charles Sumner, "The Best Portraits in En- 
graving," p. 22.) 

Of this portrait, Mariette says : 

" One could not wish for anything more perfect than this ad- 
mirable engraving." 


Portrait of Guillmtme Dubois. 

Firmin-Didot. No. 15. 

Second state, with the title. 

After the painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud. 

JACKSON, JOHN BAPTIST. [Italian School, 1701-1755. (?)] 

Born in England in 1701. 

He was first apprenticed to the wood engraver, L. Kirkall, and 
went to Paris about 1726, where he worked for some time for 
Papillon, but not meeting with much encouragement he went to 
Rome and to Venice, where he executed several wood cuts in imi- 
tation of the drawings of the great masters. 

He returned to England about 1746, and died some time after 

His principal works are a set of seventeen large cuts in chiar- 
oscuro, published at Venice by Pasquali in 1745, under the title 
of "Titiani Vecellii, Pauli Caliari, Jacobi Robusti, et Jacobi de 
Ponte, Opera selectiora, a Joanne Baptista Jackson, Anglo, ligno 
caelata, et coloribus adumbrata." 

The Entombment of Christ. 

After Jacobo de Ponte. 

The Presentation hi the Temple. 

After Titian. 

WAGNER, JOSEPH. [Italian School, 1706-1780.] 

Born at Thalendorf, on the shore of Lake Constance, in 1706, 
He studied painting at Venice with Jacopo Amiconi, who adopted 
him when he was but fourteen years old, and persuaded him to 
turn his attention to engraving, in which he had Spath for a master. 

He accompanied Amiconi to Rome and to Bologna, and in 
1733 to England. He afterwards went to Paris, to study engrav- 
ing under Laurent Cars, but soon afterwards returned to England, 
where he engraved several portraits, and then returned to Venice, 
where he opened a school and carried on a considerable business 
as a print-seller. Among his pupils were Bartolozzi, Flipart and 

He died at Munich in 1780. 


Christ and Mary Magdalen. 

From the painting by Benedetto Lutti. 

SCHMIDT, GEORG FRIEDRICH. [French School, 1712- 


Born at Berlin in 17 12. Instructed in design and engraving 
by G. P. Busch. At an early age Schmidt went to Paris, where he 
became a pupil of Nicholas de Larmessin ; and under his direction 
acquired a neatness and firmness of engraving that has rarely been 

In 1742 he was received into the Academy at Paris, and in 1744 
returned to Berlin, where he was, soon afterwards, appointed En- 
graver to the King. He resided in Berlin until 1757, when he was 
invited by the Empress Elizabeth to St. Petersburg, where he en- 
graved several excellent plates. In 1762 he returned to Berlin, 
where he practiced, with great success, a new method of combining 
etching and engraving. His manner of etching, in these plates, was 
modelled upon that of Rembrandt, after whose paintings many of 
the finest were executed. 

Schmidt died at Berlin in 1775. 


Portrait of Maurice Quentin de La Tour. 

Jacobi, No. 50. 

From the painting by La Tour, called The Laughing Painter. 
Engraved in 1742. 

This plate is rare, and is considered by some authorities to be 
Schmidt's masterpiece. 

An Old Bearded Man, With a Fur Cap and a 


Jacobi, No. 116. 

From an original design by Schmidt. 

Engraved in 1750. 

The Father of the Jewish Bride. 

Jacobi, No. 129. 

From the painting by Rembrandt. The original painting was, 
at the time of the etching, in 1770, in the collection of Count 


The Duke Adolphus, of Gueldres, Threatening His 
Imprisoned Father. 

Jacobi, No. 137. 

From the painting by Rembrandt in the Berlin Gallery, No. 
802. This etching omits the two negro attendants behind the 

Impression before the cross-hatching on the raised hand, on the 
shoulder of the cloak, and before the shading of the keyhole. 

The space under the plate remained blank in all the impres- 
sions, as the plate never had an inscription, except the artist's 

Engraved in 1756, 

Portrait of Dinglinger. 

Jacobi, No. 148. 

After the painting by Antoine Pesne. 
Dinglinger was a jeweller in Dresden. 
Engraved in 1769. 

Tobias and His Wife. 

Jacobi, No. 177. 

From the painting by Rembrandt. Smith, Catalogue rai- 
sonne, " Rembrandt," No. 48. 

SMITH, GEORGE (Smith of Chichester). [English School, 


Born at Chichester in 17 14. 

He studied art by painting, together with his brothers, the 
scenery in the neighborhood of his birthplace. His mature works 
in painting are weak imitations of Claude and Poussin, but are 
remembered as being engraved by Woollett and other engravers. 

George Smith, together with his brother John, published fifty- 
three etchings from their own landscapes. He died in 1776. 

A Storm. 

Etched in 1767. One of a series of landscape subjects. 

WILLE, JOHANN GEORG. [French School, 1717-1808.] 

Born near the small town of Konigsberg, in the Grand-Duchy 
of Hesse-Darmstadt, in 17x7. At a very early age he showed his 
bent toward the fine arts, and when ten years old was sent to study 
with a painter, whose name we do not know. He quickly learned 
the elements of drawing, but owing to nearsightedness and to his 
strong inclination towards line engraving, he abandoned painting 
and devoted himself entirely to work with the burin. His first at- 
tempts were made upon the tin and copper vessels belonging to his 
father and showed remarkable aptitude. He entered as apprentice 
the workshop of a gunsmith and remained there two years. 

After finishing his apprenticeship, in 1736, he wandered to 
Paris, becoming acquainted with Georg Friedrich Schmidt at 
Strasburg and journeying with him to the capital. 

At first he encountered great difficulties and was poorly recom- 
pensed for his engravings, but the painter Rigaud recognizing the 
merit of the young, artist's productions, took him under his pro- 
tection, and so quickly did Wille's reputation spread that before 
long he had more commissions than he could execute. 

He became a member of the Academy at Paris, and also of the 
Academies of Rouen, Augsburg, Vienna, Berlin and Dresden, He 
was appointed Engraver to the King of France, the Emperor of 
Germany and the King of Denmark. Several sovereigns sent young 
men to him to be instructed in the art of engraving. Among his 
most famous pupils may be named Schultze, Schmutzer, J. G. Miil- 
ler, Bervic and Chevillet. He was a great lover and collector of 
works of art and did not hesitate to pay large prices for choice 

He died a very poor man in 1808. 

As an engraver he excelled in portraying the brilliancy and 
softness of silk and satin draperies. His style was admirably 
adapted to the translation of the paintings of Gerard Dow, Mieris, 
Metzu and Netscher and some of his finest works are after these 
masters. He also engraved a number of excellent portraits after 
French artists, in a very beautiful manner. 


The Nurse. 

Le Blanc, No. 30, 
Second state. 

The Picnic. 

Le Blanc, No. 34. 
Second state. 

The Winding Road. 

Le Blanc, No. 44. 
Second state. 

Portrait of JVoldemar de Loewendat, Marechal de 


Le Blanc, No. 122. 

After the painting by Maurice Quentin de La Tour. 

Third state, with the full inscription. 

Engraved in 1749. 

Portrait of Jean de Boullongne, Controleur generat 

des Finances. 

Le Blanc, No. 126. 

Third state, with the inscription in three lines. 
After the painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud. 
Engraved in 1758. 

BALECHOU, JEAN JOSEPH. [French School, 1719-1764.] 

Born at Aries, 17 19. 

He studied first under a seal engraver named Michel, at 
Avignon, and later under Lepicie in Paris ; but being compelled 
to leave that city, he returned to Avignon, where he died in 1764. 

His three plates, after Claude Joseph Vernet, are among the 
fine productions of the graver, though they are surpassed by the 
engravings of William Woollett. 

The Storm. 

After the painting by Claude Joseph Vernet. This picture was 
owned at the time of the engraving, by M. Poulharies, at Marseilles. 
This plate is considered Balechou's masterpiece. 

A Calm at Sunset. 

After the painting by Claude Joseph Vernet. 
"Tire du cabinet de M. Renaud, Chanoine de St. Didier 

BARTOLOZZI, FRANCESCO. [English School, 1727-1815.] 

Born at Florence, 1727. The son of Gaetano Bartolozzi, gold- 
smith and worker in filigree. 

In his fifteenth year he was entered, as a pupil, at the Floren- 
tine Academy, where he was instructed in drawing by Ferretti. It 
was at this time that Bartolozzi became acquainted with Cipriani, 
who was then his fellow-pupil, and from whose drawings so many 
of his later plates were engraved. 

Having visited Rome, after leaving the Academy, at the age of 
18 he was apprenticed to Joseph Wagner, at Venice, from whom he 
learned engraving. His first plates were engraved after Marco 
Ricci, Zuccarelli and others, and are not devoid of merit. 

At the close of his apprenticeship he married Lucia Ferro, a 
Venetian lady of good family, and upon the invitation of Cardinal 
Bottari, removed to Rome. 

In 1764, at the age of 37, he was persuaded by Dalton, Librarian 
to King George the Third, and who was then in Italy upon a Royal 
commission to purchase paintings, to come to England. Soon 
after his arrival he was appointed Engraver to the King with a 
salary of jQz'^o a year. 

His first important work was the series of etchings after the 
drawings of Guercino in the Royal collection, shortly followed by 
the engravings after the drawings by the great Bolognese, Roman, 
Florentine and Venetian masters, also in the collection of His 

Upon the foundation of the Royal Academy, in 1769, Bartolozzi 
was nominated as one of the original members. He contributed 
from time to time, during the next thirty years, to its exhibitions. 

At the age of 74, after a residence of 38 years in England, 
Bartolozzi received a twice-repeated invitation, coupled with a 
promise of Knighthood and a pension, from the Prince Regent of 
Portugal to remove to Lisbon. This offer was accepted, and on 
November 2, 1802, he left England forever. 

In Lisbon he still continued to work and teach until shortly 
before his death, which occurred after a brief and almost painless 

illness, on March 7, 1815. He is buried in the Church of Sta. 

Notwithstanding the Italian origin of Bartolozzi, the fact that 
his principal works were executed in England has caused him to 
be generally looked upon as an English engraver. He is also often 
thought to have originated the stipple manner of engraving, but 
though he carried the technical fineness of the art to a perfection 
surpassing any subsequent work, the first artist to actually prac- 
tice this style of engraving was a Frenchman — Demarteau — who 
taught it to Ryland and Picot, in Paris, and who in their turn 
brought the art to London at about the time of Bartolozzi's arrival 
in England. 

Though Bartolozzi's name will always be mainly associated 
with stipple engraving, he is entitled to an equally high considera- 
tion as a line engraver — indeed, some authorities consider his line 
engravings to be his finest plates. 

Of plates engraved by him we know of over two thousand, 
omitting his early works as an apprentice. 


Engravings from a Series Entitled 'Eighty-two 

Prints, Engraved by F. Bartolozzi, etc., from 

the Original Drawings of Giovanni Eran- 

cesco Barbieri, Called Guercino, in 

the Collection of His Majesty!' 

Four Women, with a Boy. (T. 350.) 

Three Women, with a Boy Lying Down. (T. 351.) 

Virgin Mary, Joseph and Child, with a Globe. (T. 352.) 

Three Women, with a Palette and Sketch of a Design. (T. 353.) 

Virgin, Infant and Joseph, with an Angel Playing on a Violin. 

(T. 354.) 
Two Boys. (T. 357.) 
Flora, with a Boy. (T. 360.) 
Virgin, and Child Holding a Book. (T. 361.) 
Old Man, Woman and Boy, with a Model of a Town. (T. 362.) 
St. John in the Wilderness. (T. 363.) 
Sophonisba, with a Bowl. (T. 364.) 


Warrior, with a Truncheon. (T. 365.) 

A Sibyl, with a Book. (T. 366.) 

A Turkish Woman Reading. (T. 367.) 

Queen Esther and King Ahasuerus. (T. 369.) 

A Vocal Concert. (T. 370.) 

A Sacrifice. (T. 371.) 

St. Matthew, with an Angel and a Book. (T. 372.) 

Virgin, Infant and St. John. (T. 373.) 

St. Paul Reading. (T. 375.) 

Eight Heads, Men and Women, (T. 376.) 

St. Jerome. (T. 382.) 

Young Woman in a Thoughtful Attitude. (T. 384.) 

Woman, with a Book. (T. 385.) 

Woman Studying. (T. 386.) 

Portrait of a Woman. (T. 387.) 

Portrait, with Naked Shoulders. (T. 390.) 

Woman, with a Turban. (T. 391.) 

Virgin Teaching the Infant Jesus. (T. 393.) 

The Almighty in the Clouds, with Two Boy Angels. (T. 394.) 

Lady, Boy and Two Old Men. (T. 396.) 

Cupid, with a Dart. (T. 398.) 

Salvator Mundi, with a Globe and a Cross. (T. 399.) 

Portrait of a Young Man. (T. 400.) 

The Cornaro Family. (T. 401.) 

Portrait of a Lady. (T. 402.) 

Two Young Women, One with Her Back Towards the Beholder. 

(T. 403.) 
A Pope with a Book. (T. 404.) 
Male Portrait, with Drapery Over Shoulders. (T. 405.) 

Other Prints Engraved from the Original Draw- 
ings of Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, 
Called Guercino. 

Three Saints, the Virgin and Child in the Clouds. 
Mother and Child. 
Flora, with a Cupid. 


Boys Playing with a Bird. 

Two Young Girls, One Holding a Cage. 

A Family Praying. 

A Boy Reading. 

Woman and Child, with a Cupid. 

Two Women and a Child. 

Engravings from a Series Entitled ''Original De- 
signs of the Most Celebrated Masters of 
the Bolognese, Roman, Florentine 
and Venetian Schools, in His 
Majesty's Collection T 

Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci, drawn by himself. Stipple. 

(T. 677.) 
A Man's Head, large front face, after L. da Vinci. Stipple. 

(T. 682.) 
A plate of Mechanics, after L. da Vinci. Line engraving. 

(T. 683.) 
Three-quarter figure, after L. da Vinci. Stipple. (T. 684.) 
Dante and Other Poets, after L. da Vinci. Line engraving. 

(T. 685.) 
A Man's Head, after L. da Vinci. Stipple. (T. 686.) 
Female Head, after L. da Vinci. Line engraving. (T. 687.) 
Portrait of Annibal Caracci, drawn by himself. Stipple. 

(T. 689.) 
Abraham Entertaining Three Angels, after Lodovico Caracci. 

Line engraving, (T. 690.) 
An Old Man's Head, after Annibal Caracci. Stipple. (T. 691.) 
Jacob's Vision, after Lodovico Caracci, Line engraving. (T. 692.) 
A Monk's Head, after Annibal Caracci. Stipple. (T. 693.) 
Birth of Pyrrhus, after Agostino Caracci, (Plutarch, Vol, III,, 

p, I.) Line engraving and stipple. (T. 694.) 
Young Man's Head, after Annibal Caracci, Stipple. (T. 695.) 
Old Man's Head, after Annibal Caracci. Stipple. (T. 696.) 


Other Prints Engraved After the Same Masters. 

Night, after Annibal Caracci. Line. 

" He was Wounded for Our Transgressions." Stipple. (Printed 

in colors.) 
The First Lesson, after Guercino. Stipple. 
Magdalen, after Sassoferrato. Stipple. 

Stipple Engravings After G. B. Cipriani. 


The Distressed Mother. 

Love Cares'd. 

Prudence Endeavoring to Restrain Beauty from Following the 

Insinuations of Love. 
Cupids Bathing. 
Cupid and Psyche. 

A Naked Venus and Two Nymphs Asleep, Attended by Cupids. 
Britannia Showing a Shield. Line and stipple. 

Stipple Engravings After Angelica Kauffman, 




Una and the Lion. 

A Woman Turned in Profile to the Right. 

A Young Woman Withdrawing Her Veil. 

Rinaldo and Armida. 

Engravings After His Own Designs. 

A South Sea Islander, for " Cook's Voyages to the Pacific 

Ocean." Line. 
Finis Plate for " Cook's Voyages to the Pacific Ocean." Line. 
Frontispiece for " W. Wheatstone's National Melodies." Line. 
Portrait of a Lady. Stipple. 


Other Engravings. 

Hope, after J. H. Ramberg. Stipple. 
Frontispiece for a book, after F. Vieira. Line. 



Born at Innspruck in 1730. 

Having learned the rudiments of design in his native city and 
at Mayence, he went to Paris, where he studied under J. G. Wille 
and became an able landscape draughtsman. He afterwards visited 
Italy, and on his return to Paris brought back a large collection of 

In 1767 he was appointed Professor to the Vienna Academy, 
and died in Vienna in 1771. He etched a great number of plates 
of landscapes, views of ruins, cottages, bridges, churches, etc., 
which seem to have been well received. 


" Weirotter was very fond of picturesque buildings, of which 
he etched an immense variety, usually composing them very hap- 
pily with other materials, such as marine subjects, figures and 
landscape. He had the great artistic quality of being able to reach 
the tonality he aimed at, in which he seems to have had a certainty 
equal to that of a painter, and many of his etchings are almost as 
complete, in this respect, as pictures. They are frequently lumi- 
nous and agreeable in aspect ; they are also much nearer to the 
feeling of modern students of the picturesque than the work of 
older masters usually is." (P. G. Hamerton, "Etching and 
Etchers," pp. 113-114.) 

The Camp in the Woods. 

Andresen, No. 4. 

One of a series of twelve landscape plates dedicated by the 
etcher to J. G. Wille. 

A Rustic Bridge. 

Andresen, No. 7. 
Second state. 

From a drawing by Johann Friedrich Dietrich. A companion 
plate to " The Waterfall." 


ZUCCHI, GUISEPPE. [English School.] 

Son of Francesco Zucchi, and brother-in-law of Angelica 
Kauffman, several of whose designs he engraved. 

Young Woman with a Rosary, 
Head of a Man. 

Head of a Soldier. 

Landscape with a Castle. 

After Claude Lorraine. 

Saint Peter Repenting. 

After Guercino. 

TOROND, F. [English School.] 

An English engraver and humorous draughtsman, practising 
about the middle of the eighteenth century, of whom nothing 
definite is known. 

Head of a Man. 

WOOLLETT, WILLIAM. [English School, 1735-1785-] 

Born at Maidstone, Kent, August 15, 1735. 

He was sent to London by his father, who placed him as ap- 
prentice to John Tinney, of Fleet Street, an inferior engraver, re- 
membered only on account of his famous pupil. Later Woollett 
became a pupil of Vivares, but formed a style of his own, success- 
fully combining the use of aqua-fortis, the dry-point and the burin, 
and producing landscape engravings of a perfection unknown be- 
fore his time. In his exquisite prints, after Richard Wilson, he has 
impressed on the copper the very mind and feeling of that classic 


His plates, after Claude Lorraine, have never been surpassed. 

In 1766 Woollett was received into the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, of which he subsequently became Secretary. On Novem- 
ber 27, 1775, he was appointed Engraver to the King. 

His character as a man was exemplary, and his contemporaries 
speak of him as being modest and amiable and free from jealousy 
of other artists. 

He died in London, May 23, 1785, from the effects of an injury 
received some years before while playing at Dutch Pins. He was 
buried in old St. Pancras churchyard, and a memorial to him has 
since been placed in the west cloister of Westminster Abbey. 

" With respect to the grand and sublime, the whole world can- 
not produce his equal." (Strutt.) 

" His engravings are rivalled by none but the superb etchings 
of Claude." (Duplessis.) 

Jacob and Laban. ''II Pontes 

From the painting by Claude Lorraine. 

Proof before all letters ; with only the coat of arms, the names 
of the artists and of the publisher, Boydell, traced with the needle. 

The picture was, in 1869, in Col. Egremont Wyndham's collec- 
tion at Petworth. Waagen. Treasures, III., p. ^^. Smith. Cat. 
rais.; "Claude," No. 134. 


From the painting by Richard Wilson. 

The subject is taken from Ovid's Metamorphoses. 

Engraved from the second picture of this subject painted by 
Richard Wilson, differing somewhat from the first, which is en- 
graved by Samuel Smith. A similar picture is in the Vernon Gal- 
lery. Waagen. Treasures, I., p. 367. And another in the Bridge- 
water Gallery. Waagen. Treasures, IL, p. 53. 


From the painting by Richard Wilson in the collection of His 
Grace, the Duke of Bridgewater. 

Ceyx and Alcyone. A Marine View. 

From the painting by Richard Wilson. 


VITALBA, GIOVANNI. [Italian or English School, 1740- 

1791. (?)] 

Born about 1740. 

Flourished about 1765. He, like Bartolozzi, was a pupil of 
Wagner, upon whose style his early work is modelled. 

In 1765 he came to England and studied under Bartolozzi. 
His later work shows strongly the influence of this artist. He was 
still living in 1790. 

Saint Joseph and the Infant Saviour. 

After a drawing by Guercino. 

Angel and Child. 

After a drawing by Guercino. 

Virgin, with Angel Holding a Book. 

After a drawing by Guercino. 

A Man in Meditation. 

After a drawing by Guercino. 

A Young Man ijt Meditation. 

After a drawing by Guercino. 

NOBLE, GEORGE. [English School.] 
Pupil of Bartolozzi. 

The Singing Lesson. 

After a drawing by Guercino. 

BIRCHALL, T. [English School.] 


After a design by Angelica Kauffman. 


[English School, 1741-1807.] 

Born at Chur, in the Grisons, in 1741. 

Pupil of her father, Johann Joseph Kauffman. 

So rapid was her progress in painting, that in 1754 the family- 
moved to Milan, in order that Angelica might spend her time in 
copying the works of the best masters. 

In 1757 her mother died, and the family then went to Florence, 
and in 1759 to Rome, where her talents excited the greatest ad- 

In 1764 she went to Venice and in the next year moved to Eng- 
land, where she was received with distinction, and upon the founda- 
tion of the Royal Academy, in 1768, was nominated one of the 
thirty-six original members. 

There is still some uncertainty concerning her reported mar- 
riage with a Swedish Count, de Horn, but she seems to have rid 
herself of him in some way, since in 1781 she married Antonio 
Zucchi, a Venetian painter and an associate of the Royal Academy, 
and left London with him a few days after the ceremony. 

In 1783 she moved, with her husband, to Rome, where she died 
in 1807. She is buried in Sant' Andrea delle Frate. 

She etched a dozen or more plates. They are executed with 
taste and spirit. 

Portrait of Angelica Kauffman. 

Etched in 1770 from her own design. 

DELATRE, JEAN MARIE. [English School, 1745-1840.] 

Born at Abbeville in 1745. 

After working for some time in Paris, he came, in 1770, to 
London, where he became Bartolozzi's pupil in the stippled man- 
ner of engraving and, later, his principal assistant. 

He engraved many plates after Angelica Kauffman, G. B. 
Cipriani and other artists in a very delicate and finished manner. 

He was one of the Governors of the Society of Engravers, and 
in his later years was a pensioner of Peter Harvey's Society. 

Died June 30, 1840. 

Cupid and Psyche. 

After F. Bartolozzi. 

Peace and Temperance. 

After Angelica Kauffman. 

SHARP, WILLIAM. [English School, 1749-1824.] 

Born in London, January 29, 1749. 

At an early age he showed a strong inclination for drawing, 
and was apprenticed by his father, a gunmaker of some repute, to 
Barak Longmater, an engraver on plate, who was also well skilled 
in heraldry. 

At the expiration of his term of apprenticeship he commenced 
business as a card-plate engraver, and in 1775 executed his plate of 
" Hector " (an old lion, at that time an inmate of the Tower of 
London) from his own drawing. This engraving brought him some 
recognition, but his reputation was more widely spread by his en- 
gravings after some of Stothard's designs for the " Novelist's 

In 1782 Alderman Boydell published Sharp's plate of "Alfred 
the Great Dividing His Loaf with the Pilgrim," after Benjamin 
West, and three years later, in 1785, the masterpiece of the en- 
graver, "The Doctors of the Church," appeared. 

From this time onward fine plates were produced in quick 
succession. Few engravers have been so equal, yet so varied ; few 
translators so true, yet so original. 

His professional fame was widely spread even in his lifetime, 
and in 1814 he was elected a member of the Imperial Academy at 
Vienna, and of the Royal Academy of Bavaria. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds desired to propose him for membership 
in the Royal Academy (London), but Sharp preferred to remain 
outside the institution that excluded such engravers as Sir Robert 
Strange and William Woollett. 

His last important plate, " Mary Magdalen," after Guido Reni, 
was finished in 1822, in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and 
shows no signs of failing powers. 

He died at Chiswick on July 25, 1824, and lies buried in the 
churchyard at that place, where Hogarth and De Loutherbourg 
also lie. 




The Doctors of the Church. 

Baker, No. 13. 

After the painting by Guido Reni. 

" The picture, formerly in the Houghton Gallery, now in the 
Imperial Gallery at St. Petersburg, painted for Paul V., represents 
the four Latin Doctors of the Church, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, 
St. Augustine and St. Gregory, arguing and consulting their great 
books for the authorities on the subject of the favorite doctrine of 
the Catholic Church, the 'Immaculate Conception,' which was 
confirmed by Pope Paul V. in a bull issued in 16 17. With the four 
Doctors are presented St. John Damascene and St. Ildefonso, who 
were especial defenders of the doctrine. 

This picture, painted in Guide's early and more powerful 
manner, was eminently suited to the innate vigor of the engraver, 
and his translation of it is a work of art in its truest sense. Every 
part of it is managed with the most consummate skill, and in the 
finest keeping ; the drapery well and nobly arranged, the deep 
thought and character of each head admirably rendered, the anat- 
omy most carefully developed, and the drawing perfect ; a pro- 
found sense of meditation pervades the whole, well fitting the 
character of the scene. Sharp considered it his best work." (W. 
S. Baker, " William Sharp, Engraver," pp. 14-15.) 

" His splendid qualities appear in the Doctors of the Church, 
which has taken its place as the first of English engravings. . . . 
I remember well that this engraving by Sharp was one of the few 
ornaments in the drawing-room of Macaulay when I last saw him, 
shortly before his lamented death." (Charles Sumner, " The Best 
Portraits in Engraving," pp. 29-30.) 

Portrait of John Hunter. 

Baker, No. 54. 

After the painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

" It is of portraits especially that I write, and here Sharp is 
truly eminent. All that he did was well done ; but two were 
models ; that of Mr. Boulton, a strong, well-developed country gen- 
tleman, admirably executed, and that of John Hunter, the eminent 
surgeon, after the painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the London 
College of Surgeons, unquestionably the foremost portrait in Eng- 
lish art, and the coequal companion of the great portraits of the 
past ; but here the engraver united his rare gifts with those of the 
painter." (Charles Sumner, ** The Best Portraits in Engraving," 
P- 3°-) 


MARCUARD, ROBERT SAMUEL. [English School, 1751- 


An English designer and engraver. Born in 1751, died about 
1792. He was a pupil of Bartolozzi, whose manner of engraving 
he followed, and was considered one of the best scholars of that 


After P. da Cortona. 

DIGHTON, ROBERT. [English School, 1752-1814-] 

Born in 1752. 

An English portrait painter and caricaturist. He occasionally- 
exhibited at the Royal Academy. 

In 1799 he brought out a "Book of Heads," and thenceforth 
devoted himself to caricature. 

He is, however, chiefly remembered in connection with thefts 
of prints from the British Museum between the years 1794 and 
1806. (See Louis Fagan, "Collectors' Marks," pp. 24-26.) 

Dighton died in London in 18 14. 

Head of an Old Man. 

After Guercino. 

The Angel Appearing to Joseph. 

After Guercino. 

Old Man with a Staff. 

After Guercino. 

A Vocal Concert. 

After Guercino. 


STUBBS, GEORGE TOWNLEY. [English School, 1756- 


Born 1756, died 1815. 

Son of George Stubbs, A. R. A. (1724-1806.) 

He engraved, in mezzotint, several of his father's pictures of 
animals, and a few plates after the works of others. 

The Combat. 

After the painting by George Stubbs. 

BARTSCH, ADAM. [German School, 1757-1821.] 

Born at Vienna in 1757. 

Pupil of Schmiitzer. In 1775 he published designs of medals 
made during the reign of Maria Theresa, and subsequently en- 
graved many plates, some from the works of the great masters and 
some from his own compositions. 

He was principal keeper of the Imperial and Royal Gallery, 
at Vienna, and the author of "Le Peintre Graveur,"in 21 volumes. 
He also published catalogues of the Etchings of Rembrandt and 
his scholars, and of the works of Guido Reni, Lucas van Leyden 
and other artists. 

Bartsch died at Vienna in 182 1. 

Boys with a Cloak. 

Etched in 1805 from a design by Guercino. 

TOMKINS, PELTRO WILLIAM. [English School, 1760- 


Born in London in 1760. 

The son of William Tomkins, A. R. A., a landscape painter. 
A pupil of Bartolozzi, who appears to have entertained for him 
almost the affection of a parent ; and said of him : " He is my 
son in art ; he can do all that I can in this way, and I hope will do 
more." His reputation as an engraver in the stipple manner was 
early established, and in 1793 he was appointed Engraver to Queen 
Charlotte. Many of his plates are very beautiful, some being of 
such fineness that they cannot be distinguished from those of his 
master — Bartolozzi. 

He died April 22, 1840. 


A Figure IVith Drapery ; Perhaps Dante. 

After L. da Vinci. 

Head of a Girl. 

After L. da Vinci. 

Apotheosis of Saint Francis.. 

After Lodovico Caracci. 

An Allegorical Composition. 

After L. da Vinci. 

FONTANA, PIETRO. [Italian School, 1763-1837.] 

Born at Bassano in 1763. Died at Rome in 1837. His style is 
modelled upon that of Volpato and Raphael Morghen. 

The VemLs de Medici. 

Engraved, in Rome, in 1819. 

The original marble statue is in Florence. 

SCHIAVONETTI, LOUIS. [English School, 1765-1810.] 

Born at Bassano, in the territory of the Venetian Republic, on 
April I, 1765. 

He was the son of a stationer, and from his earliest years 
showed a remarkable taste for art. 

At the age of thirteen he was placed as pupil with Giulio 
Golini, but at the death of his master, in 1781, commenced to study 
the process of engraving with Lorio. 

In 1790, at the invitation of Bartolozzi, Schiavonetti came to 
England and was there largely employed by the publishers on book 
illustrations. He was eminent both in the line and stipple methods 
of engraving and often used them in combination. 

He died at Brompton, June 7, 1810. 




The Virgin, Child and Saint Anne. 

From the drawing by A. Caracci in His Majesty's Collection, 

WARD, WILLIAM. [English School, i 766-1826.] 

Born in London, 1766. Died December 21, 1826. Brother of 
James Ward, the celebrated animal painter, and father of W. J. 
and M. T. Ward. Brother-in-law of George Morland, after whose 
paintings many of his finest plates were engraved. 

In 1814 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and 
was appointed mezzotint engraver to the Prince Regent and the 
Duke of York. 

He died very suddenly, December i, 1826. 

Vol. IV., pp. 1453-1487. 

Portrait of Count Platoff. 

Smith, No. 68, page 1477. 

From the painting by T. Phillips, R. A. 

The horses were painted by James Ward, R. A. 

Count Platoff was born in Southern Russia, about 1765. He 
was Hetman or Chief of the Cossacks of the Don, and rendered 
great services as a cavalry general in the campaigns from 1806- 
1815. He died in February, 1818. 

AUDOUIN, PIERRE. [French School, 1768-1822.] 

Born in Paris in 1768. 

A pupil of Beauvarlet. 

He engraved a number of plates for the " Musee Frangais," 
published by Laurent, and several after some of the finest works of 
the Dutch and Italian masters. 

He died in Paris in 1822. 

A Girl With an Arrow. (''II n' est plus terns!' ) 

From the painting by P. Bouillon. 


FREY, JAN PIETER VAN or DE. [Dutch School, 


Born at Amsterdam in 1770. 

A pupil of Jacob Lauwers. 

Deprived by nature of the use of his right hand, he had the 
courage to practice the art of etching with his left, and by indus- 
try and application overcame every diflficulty. 

He became distinguished in his profession and settled in Paris, 
where he died in 1834. 

He etched many plates in a spirited manner, after the works of 
Rembrandt, Flinck and Gerard Dow. 

Portrait of Rembrandt. 

From the painting by Rembrandt. 

WATTIER, EMILE. [French School, 1800-1868.] 

Born in Paris, 1800. 

Painter, lithographer, caricaturist, engraver and vignettist. 
His work is varied in subject and unequal in merit, but his 
best subjects are after Watteau and Boucher. 
Died 1868. 

L Amour Vendangeur. 

Lithograph, after Boucher, 

Ctipidons Volants. 

Lithograph, after Boucher. 

PANNIER, JACQUES ETIENNE. [French School, 1802- 


Born in Paris in 1802. Died in 1869, 
"Pupil of Abel and of Pujol. 
Between the years 1834 and 1841 his attention was given to 


painting, and he exhibited a number of works. Later, he devoted 
himself to engraving and produced many finely finished plates ; 
mostly small in size. 

Portrait of a Young Man. 

From the painting by Velasquez. 

Engraved in 1846, as Velasquez's own portrait. 

The original painting is in the Historical Museum at Versailles. 


Note : The Artists whose tvorks follow are arranged 
in Alphabetical and not in Chronological Order, 


APPIAN, ADOLPHE. [French School.] 

Born at Lyons in 1819. 

He studied painting under Corot and Daubigny, and etched 
a number of beautiful landscape plates. His charcoal drawings, 
also, are highly esteemed. 

"My admiration for Appian's work as an etcher (he is a charm- 
ing painter also) was already great several years ago, but the more 
I see how rare his qualities are in contemporary art, or in any art, 
the more I feel disposed to value them. His work is always quite 
easy and graceful in manner, never strained, never betraying an 
effort, and it hardly ever fails to charm by a most delicate feeling 
for the poetry of natural landscape. 

His drawing of branches and trees, whenever they happen to 
come clearly against what is behind them, is always perfectly de- 
lightful, and quite as much detailed as it need be, with light and 
shade hinted at or expressed almost to the very extremity of a 
twig." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 202-203.) 



" Nothing is more difficult than the treatment of the sky in 
etching, and the best way generally is to leave the open sky quite 
blank, preserving thus its serenity at the expense of its gradation. 
If any shading is attempted it must not be mechanical, which would 
be fatal to the harmony of the plate. In the present instance the 
sky is shaded in fine taste with strokes, generally horizontal in 
tendency, but never stiffly horizontal. As the sky is lightly bitten 
the effect is good." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," 
P- 205.) 

[/n Rocher dans Les Communaux de Rix. 
Banks of a Brook at Rossillon. 

BRACQUEMOND, FELIX. [French School.] 

Born in Paris in 1833. 

He studied painting under Joseph Guichard, who was a pupil 
of Ingres, and sent his first picture to the Salon when he was nine- 
teen years old — this was a portrait of his grandmother and was of 
a quality to attract the attention of Theophile Gautier. 

The next year, in 1853, Bracquemond exhibited a portrait of 
himself which received favorable mention from many critics. This 
portrait is the one etched by Rajon and represents Bracquemond 
standing and holding a jar of acid. 

In 1849 his first etchings were made, and so rapid was his prog- 
ress in this art that three years later one of his finest plates was 
executed — ''■ Le Haut d'un Battant de Porte." 

Although his remarkable powers as an etcher were recognized 
by artists and a few of the critics, the general buying public and the 
government gave him little encouragement. His etched portrait 
of Erasmus, after the painting by Holbein, which had been ordered 
by the Minister of Fine Arts for the Chalcographie du Louvre, 
was refused by the Salon jury in 1863. 

It was while studying the original of the " Erasmus " in the 
Louvre that Bracquemond was first attracted to the enamels of 
Limousin. He endeavored to make portraits in this manner and 
eventually studied the technical process under Deck. 

In 1872 he was offered the position of Director of the Art De- 
partment at the establishment of Haviland, at Limoges. 

Here he designed porcelain of all kinds, from the smallest 
dinner plate to the celebrated *' Centennial Commemorative Vase," 
exhibited at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876. 

Bracquemond has etched over six hundred plates and has re- 
ceived all the medals, including the grand medal of honor in 1884. 
(It should have been given to him years before !) 

He was made, in 1889, an officer of the Legion of Honor, and 
at the Universal Exposition was appointed a member of the Jury 
on Etching. 



Lapwings and Teal. ( Vanneaux et Sarcelles.) 

" Each bird is studied separately, the whole force of the artist's 
attention being concentrated upon it exclusively, without embrac- 
ing the composition as a whole. A large flower comes against the 


nearest lapwing ; every petal of it is strongly outlined, and then 
the surface is flatly shaded without any modulation from incident 
of light. The principle of this work is not at all a bad principle 
for some kinds of decoration ; it is quite right on a dinner service 
or a screen, and we are very familiar with it in Japanese art ; but 
it is wrong in pictorial art, and consequently in artistic etching, 
which ought to be synthetic above all things." (P. G. Hamerton, 
" Etching and Etchers," p. 225.) 

BUHOT, FELIX. [French School.] 

Born at Valognes in 1847. 

In 1865 the Faculty of Caen conferred upon him the degree of 
Bachelor of Letters. 

At the close of the year 1865, Buhot moved to Paris, where, 
for a time, he continued his literary studies, but in the next year 
entered the studio of Lecocq de Boisbaudran. 

He next went through the course at the School of Fine Arts 
and the studio of Pils, and finally studied under the marine painter, 
Jules Noel. 

In 1870 the outbreak of war ended, for the time being, his art 
studies. He was enrolled in the militia of Brittany, which fought 
under General Chanzy against the Germans. 

Buhot rose to the rank of sergeant-major and at the close of 
the war returned to the university, where he became a teacher in 
the College Rollin. 

Four years later, having perfected a new system of instruction 
in drawing, he left the College Rollin and took a studio in the 
Passage de I'Elysee des Beaux Arts, where he devoted himself en- 
tirely to his art. 

In 1888 the first public exhibition, in America, of his collected 
work, was made by Messrs. Frederick Keppel & Co., and since that 
time his reputation as an original artist has been unquestioned by 
the majority of print collectors in America. 



per's Monthly Magazine, February, 1888. 

The Embarcation. 




Born in Paris, October 5, 1848. 

" Detaille, a favorite pupil of Meissonnier, who has become cele- 
brated as a painter very early in life, etches with consummate ease 
and skill, which may be attributed to his habit of making clever 
croquis of what he sees for subsequent use in his pictures. 

His two plates, Un Uhlan and Trompette de Chasseurs, are 
as good as anything well can be in that light-handed, sketchy man- 
ner, being full of the closest observation expressed with admirable 
ease. Any critic can say that these are 'mere sketches,' because 
all the paper is not blackened ; but he who knows what good draw- 
ing is, and where to look for it, will find more of it in a horse's leg 
by Detaille, sketched from memory in five minutes, than in many 
a laboured engraving." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," 
P- 235.) 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XlXe. SifeCLE," Vol. V., p. 208. 

Un Uhlan. 
Trompette de Chasseurs a Cheval. 

GILLI, ALBERTO MASO. [Italian School.] 

Painter and etcher. Pupil of the Ecole des Beaux Arts of 
Turin. Has exhibited in Paris since 1870. 

" Alberto Maso Gilli is an excessively skillful realist, who repre- 
sents the comedy of bourgeois existence with undeniable force, 
both of expression and execution, but it is a kind of talent which, 
though startling for the vivid reality of its effects, is essentially 
vulgar in more respects than one. The very brilliance of the 
irompe I'ml, so successfully aimed at, is vulgar in itself. Every 
imaginable artifice is resorted to in order to obtain a deceptive 
relief. Figures are set in strong lamplight against black back- 
grounds till they stand out like models, and they are shaded with 
a completeness that leaves nothing to the imagination. There can 
be no question, however, as to the manual and technical power 
with which the purpose is accomplished ; sometimes, indeed, the 


technical power is so striking, that a more refined artist might well 
envy the possession of it." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etch- 
ers," pp. T41-142.) 


pp. 144-145- 

A Reproach. (Un Rimprovero.) 

Beraldi, No. 7. 

Etched in 1874. 

" In ' Un Rimprovero ' a wife is taking a malicious pleasure in 
letting her husband know that she is aware of some infidelity ; the 
woman's face is for the most part in strong shadow, and it would 
be difficult to find in the greatest works of the greatest masters a 
more thorough piece of work than the shading of that face, in 
which every gradation is attended to, and every reflection, even to 
the faintest. The different expressions of the two faces are as life- 
like as they possibly can be, but all this technical and other ability 
is employed to tickle the tastes of a very low section of the vulgar 
continental public." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," 
p. 142.) 



Born at Breda in 1841. 

Educated at the University of Leyden. Resident in Brussels 
since 1868. It was in Brussels that Gravesande, at the suggestion 
of Feligien Rops, first commenced the practice of etching. 

" Carel Nicolaas Storm van S' Gravesande is a Dutch gentle- 
man, with the title of Jonkeer, and a son of the Vice-President of 
the House of Representatives, who is also a member of the Council 
of State. He studied for the bar, and took the degree of Doctor of 
Law at the University of Leyden, but having a strong taste for 
art, quitted legal studies for the career of a painter, to which he 
has remained faithful since, for the occasional pursuit of etching 
can scarcely be considered an infidelity to the Muse of Painting, 
however jealous she may be. 

There are few etchers in any age who are at the same time 


simple in their methods of work, and original. The proportion of 
such etchers at the present day is small indeed. There have never 
been so many etchers at one time as there are now, yet out of the 
hundreds who practice the art it is difficult to find more than a 
very few who express ideas of their own directly and harmoniously. 
. . . . The power of etching simply and beautifully at the same 
time is very rare. It has always seemed to me, and it seems to me 
still, that this gift is the gift for an etcher." (P. G. Hamerton, 
** Etching and Etchers," pp. 133-137.) 

The first exhibition in America of the collected work, in etch- 
ing, of Gravesande was made in December, 1884, by Messrs. Fred- 
erick Keppel & Co. In this exhibition were shown 188 pieces, 
comprising all the plates that the artist had then executed. 

In January and February, 1887, another exhibition of his work 
was made at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts ; and in February, 
1889, a third exhibition was made by Messrs. Frederick Keppel & 
Co. There were shown in this third collection one hundred draw- 
ings and water colors and ninety-four etchings, executed since 
1884, showing, together with the first exhibition, the entire etched 
work of the artist up to that time. 

Professor Richard A. Rice, of Williams College, who had, in 
1887, compiled the catalogue for the collection shown at the Bos- 
ton Museum of Fine Arts, contributed, at this time, an introduc- 
tion to the catalogue of this third exhibition. 

pp. 223-228. 


Souvenir des Cressonnieres a Veules. 

Beraldi, No. 63. 

Le Retour de la Peche. 

Beraldi, No. 75. 

" The woodwork is powerfully etched in line. The scene is 
poetical and impressive, but not beautiful." (P. G. Hamerton, 
" Etching and Etchers," p. 137.) 



Francis Seymour Haden was born in London on the i6th of 
September, 1818. His father was a celebrated physician and musical 

In 1837 he took the medical course at the University of Lon- 
don, that of the Sorbonne (Paris) in 1838, and filled in 1839 the 
post of anatomist at the Military Hospital of Grenoble. 

In 1840 he returned to Paris and passed his final examinations 
in medicine and surgery. In 1842 he became a Fellow of the Royal 
College of Surgeons. 

In 1843 and 1844 he travelled through Italy with his friends, 
Duval Le Camus and Colonel Guibout, and it was at this time that 
the drawings for his first etchings (Drake, Nos. i to 6) were made. 

In 1850, through his efforts, the Hospital for Incurables was 
founded. It is to-day a Royal Hospital. 

At the second Universal Exhibition at London, in 1852, he 
was, with Nelaton, appointed to make a report upon the section of 
surgical appliances and instruments. 

It will be seen, therefore, that in the life of this busy and suc- 
cessful surgeon there was left little time for the active practice of 
art, and it was during an enforced holiday, necessitated by over- 
work, that the majority of his earlier plates were etched. 

M. Philippe Burty, criticising the Salon of 1859, discovered to 
the art world of Paris, in an eloquent article, the etchings of Sey- 
mour Haden, and in 1862 (having, meanwhile, made the acquaint- 
ance of the artist and thoroughly studied his etchings) published, 
in the " Gazette des Beaux Arts," the first catalogue of his etchings, 
then numbering about sixty plates. 

In 1866 appeared the now famous "Etudes a I'eau forte," con- 
taining thirty etchings, including title, head and tail pieces, with 
critical and descriptive text by M. Philippe Burty. The number 
of copies was limited to 250, but only 180 sets were printed, as some 
of the plates then began to show signs of wear. The greatest care 
was taken with the printing of the etchings, all inferior impressions 
being destroyed, so that the publication — a grand artistic success — 
was a financial loss to the artist. 

M. Beraldi notes, amongst others, two points of interest, inno- 
vations at that time, concerning this publication. Firstly, that the 
" Etudes a I'eau forte " was published not as a book nor as an alburn^ 
but as z. portfolio of etchings ; and secondly, that instead of being 
printed with wide margins the etchings were trimmed to small 
margins and mounted upon bristol board. 


Mr. Hamerton writes, " No issue of etchings ever had such 
rapid and complete success. The reviews of them were very 
numerous ; all the London papers noticed them, and every review 
was in a strain of almost unmixed eulogy. The subscription list 
was rapidly filled, though the price went beyond even English 
custom, and in a few weeks one of the busiest surgeons in London 
found himself one of its most celebrated artists." 

No Englishman (unless it be the late Philip Gilbert Hamerton, 
by his book " Etching and Etchers") contributed so much toward 
the revival of etching in England as did Seymour Haden. Through 
his efforts the Association of Painter-Etchers was founded, and 
when, later, it was raised, by decree of the Sovereign, to the degree of 
a Royal Society, Seymour Haden was elected as its first President. 
As President and founder, therefore, of the Royal Society of 
Painter-Etchers it was, that in 1894 the honor of knighthood was 
conferred upon him by Queen Victoria. 

He has etched over two hundred plates, and his etchings of 
landscapes rank as being the finest of this (or perhaps any) century. 


pp. 13-56. 


ner's Monthly Magazine, August, 1880. 





Drake, No. 14. 

Third state. Published in " Etudes a I'eau forte." (No. XIL) 

The plate is destroyed. 

Egham Lock. 

Drake, No. 15. 

First state. Published in the *' Gazette des Beaux Arts," first 
series, Vol. XVII., 1864, p. 358. 


The plate has been mezzotinted, and a few impressions have 
been taken from it. 

The artist writes of these two plates that they were done on 
the same day and from the same spot — one looking up and the 
other down the river. 


Drake, No. i8. 

Second state. Published in the later numbers of " Etudes a 
I'eau forte," in substitution for the first state. 

Whistler s House, Old Chelsea. 

Drake, No. 47. 

Only state. Published in " Etudes a I'eau forte." (No. VIII.) 

The plate is destroyed. 

The tide is out, and the mud (in which are embedded a num- 
ber of broken boats, lighters and coal barges) is exposed. On the 
left, Lindsay Row ; and beyond and to the right. Old Chelsea 
Church and Battersea Bridge. A stellated mark, like a small sun, 
distinguishes the chimneys of Whistler's House. 

" Great care was taken in the drawing of this plate, especially 
in the foreshortening of the barges, which gave me infinite trouble 
I remember. It wore out very soon and had to be destroyed before 
it had given its full quota of impressions." (Manuscript note by 
Seymour Haden, in a copy of the catalogue of his etchings by Sir 
William Drake.) 

" There is magnificent power of drawing in this etching, and 
brilliant arrangement of lights and darks. The foreshortening of 
the bows of the barges, as seen from the sterns, is as good a piece 
of work as one might hope to find in the Royal Academy, and there 
is not a marine painter living who would have drawn these barges 
better. Their immense force as darks gives great delicacy to the 
bridge, and the light foliage beyond it ; and their cumbrous weight 
as a united mass adds greatly to the thread-like tenuity of the rig- 
ging in the distance." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," 
p. 302.) 

A Brig at Anchor. 

Drake, No. 130. 

Only state. 

Published in the " Portfolio," 1876, p. 116. 


HARDY, HEYWOOD. [English School.] 

Born in England. A contemporary painter and etcher. He 
has exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the Grosvenor Gallery. 

Head of a Horse. 

From his own design. 

JACQUE, CHARLES. [French School.] 

'* Charles Jacque was born in Paris in 1813. At the age of 
seventeen he was placed with a geographical engraver, but did not 
like the work, and enlisted as a soldier. His military career lasted 
seven years, during which he was present at the siege of Antwerp. 
After his return to the life of a civilian, Jacque spent two years in 
England where he worked as a draughtsman on wood ; and these 
seem to have been his only absences from France. He had rela- 
tions in Burgundy, and during his visits to these relations he found 
the material for many of his best etchings. Burgundy is a very 
good country for an etcher ; the rustic life is more than usually 
picturesque, and there are plenty of old buildings and bits of good 
landscape. The true French picturesque is seldonj seen in greater 
perfection than in Burgundy ; it exists there in the most profuse 
abundance, but in odd places where no one but an artist would 
know how to discover it. Jacque had the right instinct for material 
of this kind, and made good use of it, as many an etching of his 
still testifies. 

Of his quality as an etcher it is not easy to speak briefly. Some 
of his works are manly, others effeminate ; some are imitative, 
others in a high degree interpretative ; some are rapid and in- 
tuitive, others slow and painfully laborious. The total result is 
that he will certainly be remembered as one of the master etchers 
of our time. He has etched more than four hundred plates, and 
out of these hundreds a selection might be made which, in its way, 
would bear a comparison with much of the most famous work of 
past centuries." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 

pp. 163-192. 




A Naked JVoman by a Stream. 

Guiffrey, No. 140. 

A Marsh. 

Guiffrey, No. 173. 

Second state, with the added work in the sky and roulette 
work in the foreground. 

Etched in December, 1864. 

Landscape, With a Wagon. 

Guiffrey, No. 246. 

Dry point, made in 1843. 

The Little Shepherdess. 

Etched from his painting of the same subject. 

JACQUEMART, JULES. [French School.] 

Born in 1837. 

The son of Albert Jacquemart (a connoisseur in art and the 
author, amongst other books, of a " History of Porcelain," " His- 
tory of Furniture," and " History of Ceramics ") it seems fitting 
that Jules Jacquemart should have been the great etcher of ob- 
jects of vertu. 

In 1859 his first plates were published in the *' Gazette des 
Beaux Arts," and in 1862 the twenty-six plates illustrating his 
father's work, the " History of Porcelain " appeared, at once estab- 
lishing his reputation as one of the most wonderful etchers of his 
time, or indeed of any time in the history of art. 

Mr. Hamerton, writing in 1875, says: "When Jacquemart 
illustrated porcelain for a work of his father, ' Histoire de la 
Porcelaine,' he began to be inimitable ; and when he was com- 
missioned by M. Barbier de Jouy to illustrate the jewels of the 
Louvre (' Les Gemmes et Joyaux de la Couronne,' a masterpiece in 
sixty plates, etched in 1864) he stood at last on his own ground, 
master of his subject, master of his means, safe from all human 
rivalry, a prince in a little fairy princedom of his own, full of 


enchanted treasures, full of gold and opal and pearls, of porphyry 
and sardonyx and agate, of jasper and lapis lazuli, all in the 
deepest and truest sense his own ; for what rich man ever so truly 
possessed these things ? " 

In 1869 he received the cross of the Legion of Honor, and in 
1873, owing to a serious illness, a fever of the typhoid kind, caught 
in Vienna, where he was one of the jury of the International Exhi- 
bition, his career as an etcher practically terminated. 

He died at Paris in 1880. 

His etchings number almost four hundred. All show his won- 
derful lightness and certainty of hand in recording that which he 
saw. Trial proofs or impressions from unfinished plates are of 
the greatest rarity. 



P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 183-188, 382-387. 


'' Le Soldat et la Fillette qui ritT 

Gonse, No. 268. 

Etched from the painting by Van der Meer, of Delft, in the 
collection of M. Leopold Double. Published in the "Gazette des 
Beaux Arts," November, 1866. 

" This picture, one of the best of this master, has furnished to 
Jules Jacquemart the subject of one of his most astounding etch- 
ings. The Cavalier, seen from behind and in shadow, and the 
young girl in full light, with her white fichu, form the most 
beautiful arrangement in black and white that I have seen." 
(Louis Gonse, " L'CEuvre de Jules Jacquemart," p. 56.) 

"Once or twice he was very strong in the reproduction of the 
Dutch portrait painters ; but as far as Dutch painting is concerned, 
he is strongest of all when he interprets, as in one now celebrated 
etching, Jan van der Meer, of Delft. Der Soldat und das lachende 
Mddchen was one of the most noteworthy pieces in the rich 
cabinet of M. Leopold Double. The big and somewhat blustering 
trooper, common in Dutch art, sits here engaging the attention of 
that pointed-faced, subtle, but vivacious maiden peculiar to Van 
der Meer, Behind the two, who are occupied in contented gazing 
and contented talk, is the bare sunlit wall, spread only with its 
map or chart — the Dutchman made his wall as instructive as 


Joseph Surface made his screen — and by the side of the couple, 
throwing its brilliant yet modulated light on the woman's face and 
on the background, is the intricately patterned window, the airy 
lattice. Rarely was a master's subject or a master's method better 
interpreted than in this print." (Frederick Wedmore, "Four 
Masters of Etching," p. 24.) 


Born at Latrop, in Holland, in 1819. 

A pupil of Isabey. 

" Jongkind is invaluable to the student of etching as an exam- 
ple of simple line-work pushed to its utmost extreme. He gives as 
few lines as possible, never dissimulating them, and never attempt- 
ing any shade or gradation that would require much craft of 
biting. Such biting as he does give is quite simple and decided, 
about three bitings to each plate — a good vigorous black (no mis- 
take about that), a middle tint, and a pale tint for distance. 

' Could not any child of ten years old do as well ?' The true 
answer to this question (it is not an imaginary question) is, that, 
rude as this sketching looks, and imperfect in many respects as it 
really is, the qualities which belong to it are never attained in art 
without the combination of talent approaching to genius, and 
study of a very observant and earnest kind, quite beyond any pos- 
sible experience of infancy. . . . There is something approach- 
ing to sublimity in the courage which was needed to send plates 
of this description to the printer." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching 
and Etchers," pp. 128-132.) 


Entrance to the Port of Honfleur. 

Beraldi, No. 12. 

Dated 1863. 

" As there are no clouds in the sky, the artist has wisely left it 
perfectly blank. The water is expressed by a few widely separated 
wave-marks. The steamer close to the pier (apparently a mere 
confusion of blotted black lines) is a very clever representation of 
the effect of a steamer upon the eye at that distance. All these 
details are remarkable for great liveliness and motion, and as in all 
Jongkind's etchings, when anything is moving at all, we are made 
to see and feel that it is moving." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching 
and Etchers," p. 131.) 


LALANNE, MAXIME. [French School.] 

Born at Bordeaux in 1827. 

Pupil of Gigoux. One of the founders of the Societe des 

In 1866 he published a treatise on etching, which still main- 
tains its place as a standard text-book for the etcher. 

It was translated into English in 1880 by Mr. S. R. Koehler, of 
the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

At the Salon of 1866 Lalanne was awarded a medal for the 
two etchings he exhibited. In 1874 he received a medal of the 
third class for his etchings, and in the following year was made a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 

From the King of Portugal, himself an etcher of ability, 
Lalanne received the Order of Christ, he being the first etcher so 

He died in 1886. 

Four exhibitions have been made of the collected work of 
Maxime Lalanne. The first was held in Paris in 1874. The 
second, in the same year, at Bordeaux ; the third at Marseilles, in 
1875, and the fourth at New York, in the gallery of Messrs. Fred- 
erick Keppel & Co., in 1890. 

" No one ever etched so gracefully as Maxime Lalanne. This 
merit of gracefulness is what chiefly distinguishes him ; there have 
been etchers of greater power, of more striking originality, but 
there has never been an etcher equal to him in a certain delicate 
elegance, from the earliest times till now. 

He is also essentially a true etcher ; he knows the use of the 
free line, and boldly employs it on due occasion." (P. G. Hamer- 
ton, "Etching and Etchers," p. 177.) 



Le Haag, Amsterdam. 

Plage des Vaches Noires a Villers. 

An Old Normandy Port at Low Tide. 

LAW, DAVID. [English School.] 

Born at Edinburgh, April 25, 1831. 

As a young man David Law served an apprenticeship to an 
engraver of landscape and general subjects in Edinburgh and 
studied drawing at the school of art there. 

When twenty years of age, his term of apprenticeship having 
expired, he went to Southampton, to take a position in the Ord- 
nance Survey as a map engraver. Here he remained for over 
twenty years, until he retired from the Government employ in 
order to devote himself entirely to art. 

He is a member of the Royal Scottish Society of Water Color 
Painters, of the Royal Society of British Artists and of the Royal 
Society of Painter-Etchers. 

The majority of his plates are from his own designs, but he 
has translated the paintings of J. McWhirter and others in a very 
fine manner. 

" In Mr. Law's etched work we follow the water color painter 
always. I never met with any interpretative etching more gener- 
ally successful than this. Mr. Law has overcome the great sky 
difficulty, for his etched clouds have really the soft quality of 
clouds ; and their forms, without being painfully accurate, are full 
of care for truth." (P. G. Hamerton.) 

Pangbourne JVeir. 

LE RAT, PAUL. [French School.] 

Born in Paris, September 10, 1849. 
A pupil of Gaucherel. 


Les Joueurs de Cartes. 

Beraldi, No. 7. 

After the painting by Meissonnier. 


MARVY, LOUIS. [French School.] 

Born at Jouy in 1815. 

Pupil of Jules Dupre. 

Marvy is chiefly known through his "soft-ground " etchings of 
landscape subjects. Many of his plates appeared in L Artiste and 
were the means of familiarizing the public with the works of Th. 
Rousseau, Diaz, Decamps and Jules Dupre. 

He died in 1850. 


Sunshine After Rain. 

From the painting by Th. Rousseau. 

MENPES, MORTIMER L. [English School.] 

A contemporary etcher ; born in Australia, resident in London. 

" He has economy of means, and yet abundance of resource. 
He is not merely a draughtsman who has chosen to etch ; he is an 
etcher whose feeling for the capacity of his particular medium has 
in it much that is instructive." (Frederick Wedmore, " Etching in 
England," pp. 146-147.) 


The Docks. 

La Mere Gireaud. 

Study of a Young IVoinan. 

MERYON, CHARLES. [French School.] 

Born in Paris, November 21, 1821. The son of Charles Lewis 
Meryon, an English doctor, and Narcisse Chaspoux, a danseuse at 
the Opera. He was educated at Passy and, after a voyage to Mar- 
seilles and to Nice, entered the Naval School at Brest in 1837. 
Two years later he sailed upon the "Alger" and the " Montebello," 
and while at Toulon took, from the painter Courdouan, lessons in 
drawing and water color painting. The years from 1842 to 1846 


were spent in a voyage of circumnavigation, and at this time he 
made the drawings for the New Zealand plates, which, later, he 
etched in Paris. 

Upon his return to Paris he resigned his commission as 
lieutenant in the navy and entered the atelier of M. Blery, remain- 
ing there about six months. 

In 1850 (having by this time thoroughly learned the technical 
side of his art) he took chambers in the Rue St. Etienne du Mont, 
and during the next four years produced the great work of his 
life — the set of plates known as " Eaux Fortes Sur Paris." 

Though the quality of his work was appreciated, at the time 
of its production, by a few connoisseurs — Theophile Gautier, Paul 
Mantz, Philippe Burty, M, Niel, Seymour Haden and Victor Hugo 
amongst others — his plates were refused admission to the Salon, 
while the general public and the publishers would have none of 
them. Driven mad by want, neglect and disappointment, he died 
at Charenton, where he lies buried, on the 14th of February, 

** The case of Charles Meryon is one of those painful ones 
which recur in every generation, to prove the fallibility of the 
popular judgment. Meryon was one of the greatest and most 
original artists who have appeared in Europe. He is one of the 
immortals. His name will be inscribed on the noble roll where 
Diirer and Rembrandt live forever. . . . Meryon was sorely 
tried by public and national indifference, and in a moment of bitter 
discouragement he destroyed the most magnificent series of his 

When we think of the scores of mediocre engravers of all 
kinds, who, without one ray of imagination, live decently and con- 
tentedly by their trade, and then of this rare and sublime genius 
actually plowing deep burin lines across his inspired work, because 
no man regarded it ; and when we remember that this took place 
in Paris, in our own enlightened nineteenth century, it makes us 
doubt whether, after all, we are much better than savages or bar- 
barians." (Philip Gilbert Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 

" The art of Meryon stands alone. Like the work of every 
true genius, it resembles in no one feature the work of any one 
else. His method was this — First, he made not a sketch but a 
number of sketches, two or three inches square, of parts of his 
picture, which he put together and arranged into a harmonious 
whole. What is singular, and a proof of his concentrativeness, is 
that the result has none of the artificial character usual to this 


kind of treatment, but that it is always broad and simple, and that 
the poetical motive is never lost sight of." (Seymour Haden.) 

" These etchings are magnificent things. We must not allow 
this splendid imagination to be worsted in the struggle. Strengthen 
him by all the encouragements possible." (Victor Hugo.) 






Le Pont au Change, 

Wedmore, No. 18. Burty, No. 48. 

First state (of four). Third state (of eight). 

" This etching is one among many in Meryon's works where 
the air is as full of vitality as the earth, and where both, in accord, 
combine a gracefulness very rarely encountered in works of this 
class." (Philippe Burty, page dd^ 

L! Abside de Notre Dame de Paris. 

Wedmore, No. 22. Burty, No. 52. 

Second state (of five). Second state (of five). 

" The towers of the Cathedral, seen from the foot of the Pont 
de la Tournelle, dominate the nave and its buttresses. To the left 
the three arches of the Pont aux Choux span the river, and beyond 
are seen the ancient buildings of the Hotel Dieu. This view of 
Notre Dame is strikingly majestic. The Cathedral, which inspired 
a poet to write one of the most beautiful works of our generation, 
appears to have exercised a great influence over Meryon's dreamy 
spirit, and to it we owe his loveliest plate. It is also the one which 
has called for the exercise of the greatest amount of knowledge of 
drawing, of composition, and of taste. For it must be remembered 
that photography had not then placed in the hands of artists re- 
ductions of views, whereby they could obtain either tracings or 
valuable hints. Note well how Meryon has preserved in his draw- 
ing of this Gothic building all the vastness and elegance of pro- 


portion which are the characteristic types of that branch of French 
architecture. Upon a few of the early proofs of this plate M6ryon 
wrote the following lines : 

' O toi degustateur de tout morceau gothique 
Vois ici de Paris la noble basilique 
Nos Rois, grands et devots, ont voulu la bStir, 
Pour temoigner au maitre un profond repentir. 
Quoique bien grand, helas ! on la dit trop petite 
De nos moindres pecheurs pour contenir reiite.' " 
(Philippe Burty, page 70.) 

MONTBARD, GEORGE. [French School.] 

Born at Montbard in 1841. 

His real name is Charles Auguste Loye. 

Caricaturist and etcher. 

His first drawings appeared in La Vie Parisienne and Le Journal 
Amusant about 1866. He has made a number of lithographed por- 
traits for various journals, and has himself founded several jour- 
nals, all of which have, however, lived but a short time. 

Since 1872 he has resided chiefly in England and much of his 
etched work has appeared in the various magazines there. 



La Lune de MieL 

Beraldi, No. 3. 

MONZIES, LOUIS. [French School.] 

Born at Montauban in 1849. 
A pupil of Gaucherel. 


Marechal Duroc, Due de Frioul. 

Beraldi, No. 30. 

From the painting " 1807," by Meissonnier, now in the Metro- 
politan Museum, New York. 

This plate was published in " L'Art." 

A Critic. 


ROBINSON, C. F. [English School.] 

Sir Charles Robinson is keeper of the Queen's pictures and 
was, formerly, buyer for the South Kensington Museum. 


From his own design. 


Born in Paris, 1828. 

Between the years 1847 and 1859 much of his work appeared 
in L' Artiste. Veyrassat was, with Hedouin, one of the first artists, 
in France, to successfully practice reproductive etching for publi- 
cation in the magazines. 



" With reference to natural truth and idyllic charm, few artists 
of the modern rustic school have so happily expressed themselves. 
All Veyrassat's groups of animals and peasants in the fields are 
full of nature, and of art also, the art being successfully concealed, 
except in such very obvious points as the perpetual contrast of a 
white horse with a dark one." (P. G. Hamerton, ** Etching and 
Etchers," p. 214.) 

In the Woods. 

Etched from his own design. 

Interior of a Stable at Samois. 

Etched from his own painting.